Family, faith and funding from CIRM inspire one patient to plan for his future

Caleb Sizemore speaks to the CIRM Board at the June 2017 ICOC meeting.

Having been to many conferences and meetings over the years I have found there is a really simple way to gauge if someone is a good speaker, if they have the attention of people in the room. You just look around and see how many people are on their phones or laptops, checking their email or the latest sports scores.

By that standard Caleb Sizemore is a spellbinding speaker.

Last month Caleb spoke to the CIRM Board about his experiences in a CIRM-funded clinical trial for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As he talked no one in the room was on their phone. Laptops were closed. All eyes and ears were on him.

To say his talk was both deeply moving and inspiring is an understatement. I could go into more detail but it’s so much more powerful to hear it from  Caleb himself. His words are a reminder to everyone at CIRM why we do this work, and why we have to continue to do all that we can to live up to our mission statement and accelerate stem cell treatments to patients with unmet medical needs.

Video produced by Todd Dubnicoff/CIRM


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One day, scientists could grow the human cardiovascular system from stem cells

The human cardiovascular system is an intricate, complex network of blood vessels that include arteries, capillaries and veins. These structures distribute blood from the heart to all parts of the body, from our head to our toes, and back again.

This week, two groups of scientists published studies showing that they can create key components of the human cardiovascular system from human pluripotent stem cells. These technologies will not only be valuable for modeling the cardiovascular system, but also for developing transplantable tissues to treat patients with cardiovascular or vascular diseases.

Growing capillaries using 3D printers

Scientists from Rice University and the Baylor College of Medicine are using 3D printers to make functioning capillaries. These are tiny, thin vessels that transport blood from the arteries to the veins and facilitate the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the blood and tissues. Capillaries are made of a single layer of endothelial cells stitched together by cell structures called tight junctions, which create an impenetrable barrier between the blood and the body.

In work published in the journal Biomaterials Science, the scientists discovered two materials that coax human stem cell-derived endothelial cells to develop into capillary-like structures. They found that adding mesenchymal stem cells to the process, improved the ability of the endothelial cells to form into the tube-like structures resembling capillaries. Lead author on the study, Gisele Calderon, explained their initial findings in an interview with Phys.org,

“We’ve confirmed that these cells have the capacity to form capillary-like structures, both in a natural material called fibrin and in a semisynthetic material called gelatin methacrylate, or GelMA. The GelMA finding is particularly interesting because it is something we can readily 3-D print for future tissue-engineering applications.”

Scientists grow capillaries from stem cells using 3D gels. (Image Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University)

The team will use their 3D printing technology to develop more accurate models of human tissues and their vast network of capillaries. Their hope is that these 3D printed tissues could be used for more accurate drug testing and eventually as implantable tissues in the clinic. Co-senior author on the study, Jordan Miller, summarized potential future applications nicely.

“Ultimately, we’d like to 3D print with living cells … to create fully vascularized tissues for therapeutic applications. You could foresee using these 3D printed tissues to provide a more accurate representation of how our bodies will respond to a drug. The potential to build tissue constructs made from a particular patient represents the ultimate test bed for personalized medicine. We could screen dozens of potential drug cocktails on this type of generated tissue sample to identify candidates that will work best for that patient.”

Growing functioning arteries

In a separate study published in the journal PNAS, scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Morgridge Institute reported that they can generate functional arterial endothelial cells, which are cells that line the insides of human arteries.

The team used a lab technique called single-cell RNA sequencing to identify important signaling factors that coax human pluripotent stem cells to develop into arterial endothelial cells. The scientists then used the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to develop arterial “reporter cell lines”, which light up like Christmas trees when candidate factors are successful at coaxing stem cells to develop into arterial endothelial cells.

Arterial endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. (The Morgridge Institute for Research)

Using this two-pronged strategy, they generated cells that displayed many of the characteristic functions of arterial endothelial cells found in the body. Furthermore, when they transplanted these cells into mice that suffered a heart attack, the cells helped form new arteries and improved the survival rate of these mice significantly. Mice who received the transplanted cells had an 83% survival rate compared to untreated mice who only had a 33% survival rate.

In an interview with Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, senior author on the study James Thomson, explained the significance of their findings,

“Our ultimate goal is to apply this improved cell derivation process to the formation of functional arteries that can be used in cardiovascular surgery. This work provides valuable proof that we can eventually get a reliable source for functional arterial endothelial cells and make arteries that perform and behave like the real thing.”

In the future, the scientists have set their sights on developing a universal donor cell line that can treat large populations of patients without fear of immune rejection. With cardiovascular disease being the leading cause of death around the world, the demand for such a stem cell-based therapy is urgent.

Stem Cell Stories that Caught our Eye: finding the perfect match, imaging stem cells and understanding gene activity

Here are the stem cell stories that caught our eye this week. Enjoy!

LAPD officer in search of the perfect match.

LAPD Officer Matthew Medina with his wife, Angelee, and their daughters Sadie and Cassiah. (Family photo)

This week, the San Diego Union-Tribune featured a story that tugs at your heart strings about an LAPD officer in desperate need of a bone marrow transplant. Matthew Medina is a 40-year-old man who was diagnosed earlier this year with aplastic anemia, a rare disorder that prevents the bone marrow from producing enough blood cells and platelets. Patients with this disorder are prone to chronic fatigue and are at higher risk for infection and uncontrolled bleeding.

Matthew needs a bone marrow transplant to replace his diseased bone marrow with healthy marrow from a donor, but so far, he has yet to find a match. Part of the reason for this difficulty is the lack of diversity in the national bone marrow registry, which has over 25 million registered donors, the majority of which are white Americans of European decent. As a Filipino, Matthew has a 40% chance of finding a perfect match in the national registry compared to a 75% chance if he were white. An even more unsettling fact is that Filipinos make up less than 1% of donors on the national registry.

Matthew has a sister, but unfortunately, she wasn’t a match. For now, Matthew is being kept alive with blood transfusions at his home in Bellflower while he waits for good news. With the support of his family and friends, the hope is that he won’t have to wait for long. Already 1000 people in his local community have signed up to be bone marrow donors.

On a larger scale, organizations like A3M and Mixed Marrow are hoping to help patients like Matthew by increasing the diversity of the national bone marrow registry. A3M specifically recruits Asian donors while Mixed Match focuses on people with multi-ethnic backgrounds. Ayumi Nagata, a recruitment manager at A3M, said their main challenge is making healthy people realize the importance of being a bone marrow donor.

“They could be the cure for someone’s cancer or other disease and save their life. How often do we have that kind of opportunity?”

An algorithm that makes it easier to see stem cell development.

To understand how certain organs like the brain develop, scientists rely on advanced technologies that can track individual stem cells and monitor their fate as they mature into more specialized cells. Scientists can observe stem cell development with fluorescent proteins that light up when a stem cell expresses specific transcription factors that help decide the cell’s fate. Using a time-lapse microscope, these fluorescent stem cells can easily be identified and tracked throughout their lifetime.

But the pictures don’t always come out crystal clear. Just as a dirty camera lens makes for a dirty picture, images produced by time-lapse microscopy images can be plagued by shadows, artifacts and lighting inconsistencies, making it difficult to observe the orchestrated expression of transcription factors involved in a stem cell’s development.

This week in the journal Nature Communications, a team of scientists from Germany reported a solution that gives a clear view of stem cell development. The team developed a computer algorithm called BaSiC that acts like a filter and removes the background noise from time-lapse images of individual cells. Unlike previous algorithms, BaSiC requires fewer reference images to make its corrections.

The software BaSiC improves microscope images. (Credit: Tingying Peng / TUM/HMGU)

In coverage by Phys.org, author Dr. Tingying Peng explained the advantages of their algorithm,

“Contrary to other programs, BaSiC can correct changes in the background of time-lapse videos. This makes it a valuable tool for stem cell researchers who want to detect the appearance of specific transcription factors early on.”

The team proved that BaSiC is an effective image correcting tool by using it to study the development of hematopoietic or blood stem cells. They took time-lapse videos of blood stem cells over six days and observed that the stem cells chose between two developmental tracks that produced different types of mature blood cells. Using BaSiC, they found that blood stem cells that specialized into white blood cells expressed the transcription factor Pu.1 while the stem cells that specialized into red blood cells did not. Without the algorithm, they didn’t see this difference.

Senior author on the study, Dr. Nassir Navab, concluded by highlighting the importance of their technology and sharing his team’s vision for the future.

“Using BaSiC, we were able to make important decision factors visible that would otherwise have been drowned out by noise. The long-term goal of this research is to facilitate influencing the development of stem cells in a targeted manner, for example to cultivate new heart muscle cells for heat-attack patients. The novel possibilities for observation are bringing us a step closer to this goal.”

Silenced vs active genes: it’s like oil and water (Todd Dubicoff)

The DNA from just one of your cells would be an astounding six feet in length if stretched out end to end. To fit into a nucleus that is a mere 4/10,000th of an inch in diameter, DNA’s double helical structure is organized into intricate twists within twists with the help of proteins called histones.

Together the DNA and histones are called chromatin. And it turns out that chromatin isn’t just for stuffing all that genetic material into a tiny space. The amount of DNA folding also affects the regulation of genes. Areas of chromatin that are less densely packed are more accessible to DNA-binding proteins called transcription factors that activate gene activity. Other regions, called heterochromatin, are compacted which leads to silencing of genes because transcription factors are shut out.

But there’s a wrinkle in this story. More recently, scientists have shown that large proteins are able to wriggle their way into heterochromatin while smaller proteins cannot. So, there must be additional factors at play. This week, a CIRM-funded research project published in Nature provides a possible explanation.

Liquid-like fusion of heterochromatin protein 1a droplets is shown in the embryo of a fruit fly. (Credit: Amy Strom/Berkeley Lab)

Examining the nuclei of fruit fly embryos, a UC Berkeley research team report that various regions of heterochromatin coalesce into liquid droplets which physically separates them from regions where gene activity is high. This phenomenon, called phase-phase separation, is what causes oil droplets to fuse together when added to water. Lead author Dr. Amy Strom explained the novelty of this finding and its implications in a press release:

“We are excited about these findings because they explain a mystery that’s existed in the field for a decade. That is, if compaction [of chromatin] controls access to silenced [DNA] sequences, how are other large proteins still able to get in? Chromatin organization by phase separation means that proteins are targeted to one liquid or the other based not on size, but on other physical traits, like charge, flexibility, and interaction partners.”

Phase-phase separation can also affect other cell components, and problems with it have been linked to neurological disorders like dementia. In diseases like Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s, proteins aggregate causing them to become more solid than liquid over time. Strom is excited about how phase-phase separation insights could lead to novel therapeutic strategies:

“If we can better understand what causes aggregation, and how to keep things more liquid, we might have a chance to combat these types of disease.”

Listen Up: A stem cell-based solution for hearing loss

Can you hear me now?

If you’re old enough, you probably recognize this phrase from an early 2000’s Verizon Wireless commercial where the company claims to be “the nation’s largest, most reliable wireless network”. However, no matter how hard wireless companies like Verizon try, there are still dead zones where cell phone reception is zilch and you can’t in fact hear me now.

This cell phone coverage is a good analogy for the 5% of the world population, or 360 million people, that suffer from hearing loss. There are many causes for hearing loss including genetic predispositions, birth defects, constant exposure to loud noises, infectious diseases, certain drugs, ear infections and aging. There is no cure that fully restores hearing, but patients can benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implants and other hearing devices.

But listen to this. A new stem cell-based technique developed by the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary may restore hearing in patients with hearing loss. The team discovered that stem cells in the inner ear can be manipulated in a culture dish to expand and develop into large quantities of cochlear hair cells, which make it possible for your brain to detect sound. Their work was published this week in the journal Cell Reports.

In a previous study, the Boston team found that stem cells in the inner ears of mice could be directly converted into cochlear hair cells, but they weren’t able to generate enough hair cells to fully restore hearing in these mice. Building on this work, the team isolated these stem cells, which express a protein called LGR5, and developed an augmentation technique consisting of drugs and growth factors to expand these stem cells and then specialize them into larger populations of hair cells.

A new technique converts stems cells into hair cells. Image credit Will McLean, Albert Edge, Massachusetts Eye and Ear

A new technique converts stems cells into hair cells. Image credit Will McLean, Albert Edge, Massachusetts Eye and Ear.

From a single mouse cochlea, they made more than 11,500 hair cells using their new augmentation method, which is more than 50 times the number of hair cells they made using a more basic method.

In a news release, senior author on the study, Dr. Albert Edge, explained the importance of their findings for patients with hearing loss:

Albert Edge

Albert Edge

“We have shown that we can expand Lgr5-expressing cells to differentiate into hair cells in high yield, which opens the door for drug discovery for hearing. We hope that by stimulating these cells to divide and differentiate that we will improve on our previous results in restoring hearing. With this knowledge, we can make better shots on goal, which is critical for repairing damaged ears. We have identified the cells of interest and have identified the pathways and drugs to target to improve on previous results. These clues may lead us closer to finding drugs that could treat hearing loss in adults.”

Wishing You and Your Stem Cells a Happy Valentine’s Day!

cirm-valentines-day

Roses are Red, 

Violets are Blue,

 Let’s thank pluripotent stem cells,

For making humans like me and you

Happy Valentine’s Day from me and everyone at CIRM! Today, we are celebrating this day of love by sending our warmest wishes to you our readers. We’re grateful for your interest in learning more about stem cells and your steadfast support for the advancement of stem cell research.

We also want to wish a Happy Valentine’s Day to your stem cells, yes that’s right the stem cells you have in your body. Without pluripotent stem cells, which are embryonic cells that generate all the cells in your body, humans wouldn’t exist. And without adult stem cells, which live in your tissues and organs, we wouldn’t have healthy, functioning bodies.

So, as you’re wishing your loved ones, friends, and colleagues a Happy Valentine’s Day, take a moment to thank your body and the stem cells living in it for keeping you alive.

I’ll leave you with a few Valentine’s Day themed stem cell blogs for you to enjoy. Have a wonderful day!


Valentine’s Day Themed Blogs:

1) Toronto Scientists Have an Affair with the Heart by OIRMexpression

Ventricular heart muscle cells. Image courtesy of Dr. Michael Laflamme

Ventricular heart muscle cells. Image courtesy of Dr. Michael Laflamme

2) A Cardiac Love Triangle: How Transcription Factors Interact to Make a Heart by the Stem Cellar

© Gladstone Institutes photo credit: Kim Cordes / Gladstone Institute Lay Description: In this image, human embryonic stem cells have been differentiated into cardiomyocytes, or heart muscle cells, and stained to show the expression of cardiac Troponin T (red), a protein that helps cardiomyocytes to contract, and cell nuclei (blue). Scientific Description: Cultured human iPSCs reprogrammed into CMs. Stain for cTnT (red), and DAPI (blue). Original caption: cardiomyocytes.tif

Heart cells made from human induced pluripotent stem cells. © Gladstone Institutes
photo credit: Kim Cordes / Gladstone Institute

3) Stem Cells on Valentine’s Day: Update on Cardiac Regenerative Medicine by Paul Knoepfler on the Niche Blog

4) Hope For Broken Hearts this Valentine’s Day – a Clinical Trial to Repair the Damage by the Stem Cellar


Special thanks to Samantha Yammine for letting us her her “Icy Astrocytes” photo in our Valentine’s Day graphic.

Failed stem cells may cause deadly lung disease

pf

Breathing is something we take for granted. It’s automatic. We don’t need to think about it. But for people with pulmonary fibrosis, breathing is something that is always on their minds.

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a disease where the tissue in your lungs becomes thick and stiff, even scarred, making it difficult to breathe. It can be a frightening experience; and it doesn’t just affect your lungs.

Because your lungs don’t work properly they aren’t able to move as much oxygen as you need into your bloodstream, and that can have an impact on all your other organs, such as your brain and heart. There are some treatments but no cures, in large part because we didn’t know the cause of the disease. Many patients with PF live only 3-5 years after diagnosis.

Now a new CIRM-funded study from researchers at Cedars-Sinai has uncovered clues as to the cause of the disease, and that in turn could pave the way to new treatments.

The study, published in the journal Nature, found that a class of stem cells in the lung, called AEC2s, are responsible for helping repair damage caused by things such as pollution or infection. People who have PF have far fewer of these AEC2 cells, and those cells also had a much lower concentration of a chemical substance called hyaluronan, which is essential for repair damaged tissue.

They tested this theory with laboratory mice and found that by removing hyaluronan the mice developed thick scarring in their lungs.

In a news release from Cedars-Sinai Carol Liang, the study’s first author, said knowing the cause of the problem may help identify potential solutions:

“These findings are the first published evidence that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is primarily a disease of AEC2 stem cell failure. In further studies, we will explore how the loss of hyaluronan promotes fibrosis and how it might be restored to cell surfaces. These endeavors could lead to new therapeutic approaches.”

Knowing that a problem with AEC2 cells causes PF means the researchers can now start testing different medications to see which ones might help boost production of replacement AEC2 cells, or help protect those still functioning.

Seeing is Believing: New Video on the Power of Stem Cells

skepticThe world is full of skeptics. Remember when you first heard about self-driving cars? I’m sure that information was met with comments like, “When pigs fly!” or “I’ll believe it when I see it!” Well, it turns out that the best way to get people to believe something is possible, is to show them.

And that’s our mission at CIRM. To show people that stem cell research is important and funding it is essential for the development of future therapies that can help patients with all sorts of diseases be they rare, acute, or chronic.

We’re doing this in multiple ways through our Stem Cellar blog and social media channels where we post about the latest advances in regenerative medicine research towards the clinic, through disease walks and support groups where we educate patients about stem cells, and through fun and engaging videos about the cutting-edge research that our agency is funding.

Last month, the world celebrated Stem Cell Awareness Day on October 12th. One of the ways we celebrated at CIRM was to give talks at local institutes about the power of stem cells for research and therapeutic development. One of these talks was at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato as part of their special public event on “Turning Promise of Regenerative Medicine into Reality” supported by the STEAM ENGINE, the teacher outreach program at the Buck Institute.

Kevin, CIRM’s communicators director, and I did a joint presentation on the different ways that scientists are using stem cells to model disease and to develop new treatments for patients. We also shared a few particularly exciting stories about new stem cell advancements that are being tested in clinical trials. One of them was a heartbreaking turned heartwarming story of Evangelina, a baby born with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a disease that leaves children without a functioning immune system and often kills babies within a year of birth. Evangelina was part of a CIRM-funded clinical trial run by UC Los Angeles that transplanted the patient’s own genetically corrected blood stem cells. Evangelina is one of 30 children the UCLA team has cured and CIRM is now funding a Phase 2 clinical trial for this work.

Our talk was followed by exciting stories of stem cell research in the lab. Three talented postdoctoral fellows, who spoke about new developments in stem cell therapies for HIV, degenerative eye disease and neurodegenerative diseases. The talks were well received by the audience, who were actively speaking up to ask questions during the panel discussion with the speakers.

Panel on stem cells.

Stem cell panel: Kevin McCormack, Imilce Rodriguez-Fernandez, Joana Neves, Karen Ring.

It was a truly inspiring day full of learning and excitement about the future of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. But for the skeptics out there, don’t take my word for it, you can see for yourself by can watching the video recording here:


Related Links:

First spinal cord injury trial patient gets maximum stem cell dose

kris-boesen

Kris Boesen, CIRM spinal cord injury clinical trial patient.

There comes a pivotal point in every experiment where you say “ok, now we are going to see if this really works.” We may be at that point in the clinical trial we are funding to see if stem cells can help people with spinal cord injuries.

Today Asterias Biotherapeutics announced they have given the first patient in the clinical trial the highest dose of 20 million cells. The therapy was administered at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center (SCVMC) in San Jose, California where Jake Javier – a young man who was treated at an earlier stage of the trial – was treated. You can read Jake’s story here.

The goal of the trial is to test the safety of transplanting three escalating doses of AST-OPC1 cells. These are a form of cell called oligodendrocyte progenitors, which are capable of becoming several different kinds of nerve cells, some of which play a supporting role and help protect nerve cells in the central nervous system – the area damaged in spinal cord injury.

In a news release, Dr. Edward Wirth, Asterias’ Chief Medical Officer, says this could be a crucial phase in the trial:

“We have been very encouraged by the early clinical efficacy and safety data for AST-OPC1, and we now look forward to evaluating the 20 million cell dose in complete cervical spinal cord injury patients. Based on extensive pre-clinical research, this is in the dosing range where we would expect to see optimal clinical improvement in these patients.”

To be eligible, individuals have to have experienced a severe neck injury in the last 30 days, one that has left them with no sensation or movement below the level of their injury, and that means they have typically lost all lower limb function and most hand and arm function.

In the first phase individuals were given 2 million cells. This was primarily to make sure that this approach was safe and wouldn’t cause any problems for the patients. The second phase boosted that dose to ten million cells. That was thought to be about half the therapeutic dose but it seemed to help all those enrolled. By 90 days after the transplant all five patients treated with ten million cells had shown some level of recovery of at least one motor level, meaning they had regained some use of their arms and/or hands on at least one side of their body. Two of the patients experienced an improvement of two motor levels. Perhaps the most impressive was Kris Boesen, who regained movement and strength in both his arms and hands. He says he is even experiencing some movement in his legs.

All this is, of course, tremendously encouraging, but we also have to sound a note of caution. Sometimes individuals experience spontaneous recovery after an accident like this. The fact that all five patients in the 10 million cell group did well suggests that this may be more than just a coincidence. That’s why this next group, the 20 million cell cohort, is so important.

As Steve McKenna, Chief of the Trauma Center at SCVMC, says; if we are truly going to see an improvement in people’s condition because of the stem cell transplant, this is when we would expect to see it:

“The early efficacy results presented in September from the 10 million cell AIS-A cohort were quite encouraging, and we’re looking forward to seeing if those meaningful functional improvements are maintained through six months and beyond. We are also looking forward to seeing the results in patients from the higher 20 million cell AST-OPC1 dose, as well as results in the first AIS-B patients.”

For more information about the Asterias clinical trial, including locations and eligibility requirements, go here: www.clinicaltrials.gov, using Identifier NCT02302157, and at the SCiStar Study Website (www.SCiStar-study.com).

We can never talk about this clinical trial without paying tribute to a tremendous patient advocate and a great champion of stem cell research, Roman Reed. He’s the driving force behind the Roman Reed Spinal Cord Injury Research Act  which helped fund the pioneering research of Dr. Hans Keirstead that laid the groundwork for this clinical trial.

 

 

Discovering stem cells and science at Discovery Day

discoveryday

The CIRM booth at Discovery Day at AT&T Park

Someone stole my thigh bone. One minute it was there. The next, gone. I have narrowed down the list of suspects to the more than 25,000 people attending Discovery Day at San Francisco’s AT&T Park.

To be honest, the bone was just a laminated image of a bone, stuck to the image of a person drawn on a white board. We were using it, along with laminated images of a brain, liver, stomach and other organs and tissues, to show that there are many different kinds of stem cells in the body, and they all have different potential uses.

The white board and its body parts were gimmicks that we used to get kids to come up to the CIRM booth and ask what we were doing. Then, as they played with the images, and tried to guess which stem cells went where, we talked to their parents about stem cell research, and CIRM and the progress being made.

discoveryday-karen

Dr. Karen Ring explaining embryonic development to kids

We also used Play Doh so that the kids could model cell division and specialization during embryonic development. But mostly it was so the kids could play with the Play Doh while we talked to their parents.

It is shameless I know but when you are competing against more than 130 other booths for people’s attention – and some of these booths had live snakes, virtual reality devices, or they just let kids throw and hit things – you have to be creative.

And creativity was certainly the key word, because Discovery Day – part of the annual week-long Bay Area Science Fair – was filled with booths from companies and academic institutions promoting every imaginable aspect of science.

So why were we there? Well, first, education has been an important part of CIRM’s mission ever since we were created. Second, we’re a state agency that gets public funding so we feel we owe it to the public to explain how their money is being used. And third, it’s just a lot of fun.

NASA was there, talking about exploring deep space. And there were booths focused on exploring the oceans, and saving them from pollution and over-fishing. You could learn about mathematics and engineering by building wacky-looking paper airplanes that flew long distances, or you could just sit in the cockpit of a fighter jet.

discoveryday-victor

And everywhere you looked were families, with kids running up to the different booths to see what was there. All they needed was a little draw to get them to stick around for a few minutes, so you could talk to them and explain to them what stem cells are and why they are so amazing. Some of the kids were fascinated and wanted to know more: some just wanted to use the Play Doh;  at least one just wanted to eat the Play Doh, but fortunately we were able to stop that happening.

It was an amazing sight to see a baseball stadium filled with tens of thousands of people, all there to learn about science. At a time when we are told that kids don’t care about science, that they don’t like math, this was the perfect response. All you had to do was look around and see that kids were fascinated by science. They were hungry to learn how pouring carbon dioxide on a candle puts out the flame. They delighted in touching an otter pelt and feeling how silky smooth it is, and then looking at the pelt under a microscope to see just how extraordinarily dense the hairs are and how that helps waterproof the otter.

And so yes, we used Play Doh and a white board person to lure the kids to us. But it worked.

There was another booth where they had a couple of the San Francisco 49er’s cheerleaders in full uniform. I don’t actually know what that had to do with teaching science but it was very popular with some of the men. Maybe next year I could try dressing up like that. It would certainly draw a crowd.


Check us out on Instagram to learn more about CIRM’s educational outreach efforts.

We had a lot of fun this weekend teaching young minds about what stem cells are and where they are located in the human body at the @bayareascience #DiscoveryDay festival. We had one activity where kids learned about embryonic stem cells and development using playdoh and another white board activity about adult stem cells. Students learned that each organ has its own set of adult stem cells that can regenerate lost or damaged cells in that specific organ. It was really fun to explain to kids and their parents why stem cells and regenerative medicine research are important. • • • #BASF2016 #stemcells #stemcellresearch #stemeducation #STEM #teaching #education #research #attpark #CIRM #development #embryonicstemcells

A post shared by California's Stem Cell Agency (@cirm_stemcells) on

Meat the future of stem cells. And I do mean “meat”.

'...And just a pince of stem cells.'

Over the years there have been a lot of interesting, odd ball, even a few really rather crazy stories about stem cell research that have made the news. So in honor of Halloween, we thought we’d look back at a few of them to remind ourselves that not all science is worthy of pursuit.

Celebrity meat:

meat

Back in 2014 a company called BiteLabs claimed it was going to make  “fine artisanal salami from meat that has been lab-grown from celebrity tissue samples.” You read that right. They were going to make salami from famous people.

Here’s how they described the process. First they would take a small sample of stem cells from the celebrity, the kind of cell that is used to grow and repair damaged muscles. Then they would grow those cells in the lab, increasing their number to millions of muscle cells. Those are then ground up, mixed with regular salami and some spices, fats and oils until you had the desired consistency and texture.

Then they were stuffed into casings, and dried, aged and cured until you end up with celebrity salami.

Not surprisingly it attracted a lot of attention. The Twitterverse was filled with images of celebrities people wanted to “eat” – Jennifer Lawrence, ‘a new kind of Hunger Games’. It was also filled with headlines from magazines like Cosmopolitan asking “Is this the weirdest food of all time”.

Turns out it was more of a joke, or at least a fun way to get people discussing bioethics and pushing the boundaries – or maybe it was the buttons – of tech and society.

Meet the most expensive meat in the world

If that was meant to be a joke then some researchers at Maastricht University in the Netherlands didn’t get it. Because the next year they actually produced a burger that was made out of stem cells.

They took some bovine – aka ‘cow’ – stem cells, grew them in the lab (this took three months so definitely not a “fast food”), then mixed them with salt, breadcrumbs and egg and cooked them in a little butter and sunflower oil.

People who tried it described it as “tough” and “not that juicy”. Harder to stomach than the burger itself was the price tag, more than $300,000.

A mammoth task

woollymammoth

It’s not just meat that is attracting the attention of stem cell researchers. More recently a team of Korean and Russian scientists decided it might be fun to try and use stem cells to “grow” a mammoth. You know, the giant, woolly, elephant-like creatures that went extinct thousands of years ago – except for occasional starring roles in the Ice Age animated movies.

They were going to take some DNA from the remnants of a mammoth found in the frozen tundra in Siberia, decode its genome, then create a functioning cell nucleus and transplant that into an elephant’s embryo. Easy right? What could possible go wrong (for some suggestions see Jurassic Park/World).

Maybe if that doesn’t work out they could just grow the cells into meat and market them. Mammoth burgers. Sounds yummy doesn’t it.

Happy Halloween.