Stem Cell Agency Heads to Inland Empire for Free Patient Advocate Event

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I am embarrassed to admit that I have never been to the Inland Empire in California, the area that extends from San Bernardino to Riverside counties.  That’s about to change. On Monday, April 16th CIRM is taking a road trip to UC Riverside, and we’re inviting you to join us.

We are holding a special, free, public event at UC Riverside to talk about the work that CIRM does and to highlight the progress being made in stem cell research. We have funded 45 clinical trials in a wide range of conditions from stroke and cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, vision loss, diabetes and sickle cell disease to name just a few. And will talk about how we plan on funding many more clinical trials in the years to come.

We’ll be joined by colleagues from both UC Riverside, and City of Hope, talking about the research they are doing from developing new imaging techniques to see what is happening inside the brain with diseases like Alzheimer’s, to using a patient’s own cells and immune system to attack deadly brain cancers.

It promises to be a fascinating event and of course we want to hear from you, our supporters, friends and patient advocates. We are leaving plenty of time for questions, so we can hear what’s on your mind.

So, join us at UC Riverside on Monday, April 16th from 12.30pm to 2pm. The doors open at 11am so you can enjoy a poster session (highlighting some of the research at UCR) and a light lunch before the event. Parking will be available on site.

Visit the Eventbrite page we have created for all the information you’ll need about the event, including a chance to RSVP and book your place.

The event is free so feel free to share this with anyone and everyone you think might be interested in joining us.

 

 

Stem Cell Roundup: hESCs turn 20, tracking cancer stem cells, new ALS gene ID’d

Stem Cell Image of the Week

Picture1This week’s stunning stem cell image is brought to you by researchers in the Brivanlou Lab at Rockefeller University. What looks like the center of a sunflower is actual a ball of neural rosettes derived from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Neural rosettes are structures that contain neural stem and progenitor cells that can further specialize into mature brain cells like the stringy, blue-colored neurons in this photo.

This photo was part of a Nature News Feature highlighting how 20 years ago, human ESCs sparked a revolution in research that’s led to the development of ESC-based therapies that are now entering the clinic. It’s a great read, especially for those of you who aren’t familiar with the history of ESC research.

Increase in cancer stem cells tracked during one patient’s treatment
Cancer stem cells are nasty little things. They have the ability to evade surgery, chemotherapy and radiation and cause a cancer to return and spread through the body. Now a new study says they are also clever little things, learning how to mutate and evolve to be even better at evading treatment.

Researchers at the Colorado Cancer Center did three biopsies of tumors taken from a patient who underwent three surgeries for salivary gland cancer. They found that the number of cancer stem cells increased with each surgery. For example, in the first surgery the tumor contained 0.2 percent cancer stem cells. By the third surgery the number of cancer stem cells had risen to 4.5 percent.

Even scarier, the tumor in the third surgery had 50 percent more cancer-driving mutations meaning it was better able to resist attempts to kill it.

In a news release, Dr. Daniel Bowles, the lead investigator, said the tumor seemed to learn and become ever more aggressive:

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Daniel Bowles

“People talk about molecular evolution of cancer and we were able to show it in this patient. With these three samples, we could see across time how the tumor developed resistance to treatment.”

 

The study is published in the journal Clinical Cancer Research.

New gene associated with ALS identified.
This week, researchers at UMass Medical School and the National Institute on Aging reported the identification of a new gene implicated in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, ALS is a horrific neurodegenerative disorder that degrades the connection between nerve signals and the muscles. Sufferers are robbed of their ability to move and, ultimately, even to breathe. Life expectancy is just 3 to 5 years after diagnosis.

To identify the gene, called KIF5A, the team carried out the largest genetics effort in ALS research with support from the ALS Association, creators of the Ice Bucket Challenge that raised a $115 million for research. The study compared the genomes between a group of nearly 22,000 people with ALS versus a group of over 80,000 healthy controls. Two independent genetic analyses identified differences in the expression of the KIF5A gene between the two groups.

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Cartoon representing the role that KIF5A plays in neurons. (Image: UMass Medical School)

KIF5A is active in neurons where it plays a key role in transporting cell components across the cell’s axon, the long, narrow portion of the cell that allows neurons to send long-range signals to other cells. It carries out this transport by tethering cell components on the axon’s cytoskeleton, a structural protein matrix within the cells. Several mutations in KIF5A were found in the ALS group which corroborates previous studies showing that mutations in other cytoskeleton genes are associated with ALS.

One next step for the researchers is to further examine the KIF5A mutations using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

The study was published in Neuron and picked up by Eureka Alert!

CIRM-funded clinical trial takes a combination approach to treating deadly blood cancers

Stained blood smear shows enlarged chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells among normal red blood cells. (UCSD Health)

A diagnosis of cancer often means a tough road ahead, with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation used to try and kill the tumor. Even then, sometimes cancer cells manage to survive and return later, spreading throughout the body. Now researchers at UC San Diego and Oncternal Therapeutics are teaming up with a combination approach they hope will destroy hard-to-kill blood cancers like leukemia.

The combination uses a monoclonal antibody called cirmtuzumab (so called because CIRM funding helped develop it) and a more traditional anti-cancer therapy called ibrutinib. Here’s how it is hoped this approach will work.

Ibrutinib is already approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma. But while it can help, it doesn’t always completely eradicate all the cancer cells. Some cancer stem cells are able to lie dormant during treatment and then start proliferating and spreading the cancer later. That’s why the team are pairing ibrutinib with cirmtuzumab.

In a news release announcing the start of the trial, UCSD’s Dr. Thomas Kipps,  said they hope this one-two punch combination will be more effective.

Thomas Kipps, UCSD

“As a result {of the failure to kill all the cancer cells}, patients typically need to take ibrutinib indefinitely, or until they develop intolerance or resistance to this drug. Cirmtuzumab targets leukemia and cancer stem cells, which are like the seeds of cancer. They are hard to find and difficult to destroy. By blocking signaling pathways that promote neoplastic-cell growth and survival, cirmtuzumab may have complementary activity with ibrutinib in killing leukemia cells, allowing patients potentially to achieve complete remissions that permit patients to stop therapy altogether.”

Because this is an early stage clinical trial, the goal is to first make sure the approach is safe, and second to identify the best dose and treatment schedule for patients.

The researchers hope to recruit 117 patients around the US. Some will get the cirmtuzumab and ibrutinib combination, some will get ibrutinib alone to see if one approach is more effective than the other.

CIRM has a triple investment in this research. Not only did our funding help develop cirmtuzumab, but CIRM is also funding this clinical trial and one of the trial sites is at UCSD, one of the CIRM Alpha Stem Cell Clinics.

CIRM’s Dr. Ingrid Caras says this highlights our commitment to our mission of accelerating stem cell therapies to patients with unmet medical needs.

“Our partnership with UC San Diego and the Alpha Stem Cell Clinics has enabled this trial to more quickly engage potential patient-participants. Being among the first to try new therapies requires courage and CIRM is grateful to the patients who are volunteering to be part of this clinical trial.”


Related Links:

California gets first royalty check from Stem Cell Agency investments

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CIRM recently shared in a little piece of history. The first royalty check, based on CIRM’s investment in stem cell research, was sent to the California State Treasurer’s office from City of Hope. It’s the first of what we hope will be many such checks, helping repay, not just the investment the state made in the field, but also the trust the voters of California showed when they created CIRM.

The check, for $190,345.87, was for a grant we gave City of Hope back in 2012 to develop a therapy for glioblastoma, one of the deadliest forms of brain cancer. That has led to two clinical trials and a number of offshoot inventions that were subsequently licensed to a company called Mustang Bio.

Christine Brown, who is now the principal investigator on the project, is quoted in a front page article in the San Francisco Chronicle, on the significance of the check for California:

“This is an initial payment for the recognition of the potential of this therapy. If it’s ultimately approved by the FDA as a commercial product, this could be a continued revenue source.”

In the same article, John Zaia, Director of the City of Hope Alpha Stem Cell Clinic, says this also reflects the unique nature of CIRM:

“I think this illustrates that a state agency can actually fund research in the private community and get a return on its investment. It’s something that’s not done in general by other funding agencies such as the National Institutes of Health, and this is a proof of concept that it can work.”

Maria Millan, CIRM’s President & CEO, says the amount of the payment is not the most significant part of this milestone – after all CIRM has invested more than $2.5 billion in stem cell research since 2004. She says the fact that we are starting to see a return on the investment is important and reflects some of the many benefits CIRM brings to the state.

“It’s a part of the entire picture of the return to California. In terms of what it means to the health of Californians, and access to these transformative treatments, as well as the fact that we are growing an industry.”

 

Novel approach to slowing deadly brain cancer stem cells may lead to new treatments

Glioblastoma, a form of brain cancer, is one of the most dreaded cancer diagnoses. Standard radiation and chemotherapy treatments for glioblastoma almost always prove ineffective because of the cancer’s ability to grow back. With their unlimited potential to self-renew, cancer stem cells within the brain tumor are thought to be responsible for its aggressive reoccurrence. Not surprisingly, researchers looking to develop more effective therapies are focused on trying to better understand the biology of these cancer stem cells in order to exploit their vulnerabilities.

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MRI image of high grade glioma brain tumor (white mass on left). Image: Wikipedia

This week, the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center reports that a research team led by Damian A. Almiron Bonnin has identified a cell signal that the brain cancer stem cells rely on to resist standard treatments and to regrow. They also showed that drugs which interrupt this signal reduced tumor growth in animal studies.

Because if its aggressive growth, the cells within the glioblastoma eventually become starved for oxygen or, in scientific lingo, they become hypoxic. The presence of hypoxia in brain tumors is actually predictive of a poor prognosis in affected patients. A protein called hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) becomes activated in these low oxygen conditions and helps the cancer stem cells to survive and continue to grow. The research team found that HIF carries out this function by triggering a cascade of cell activity that leads to the secretion of a protein called VEGF out into the microenvironment of the tumor. As secreted VEGF spreads through the tumor, it stimulates new blood vessel growth which is key to the tumor’s survival by nourishing the tumor with oxygen and nutrients.

Adding drugs that block a cell’s ability to release proteins, led to a reduction in glioblastoma tumor growth both in petri dishes and in animal studies. With these results, published in Oncogene, Dr. Almiron Bonnin’s team is performing the necessary preclinical studies that could lead to testing this novel strategy in patients. He summed this effort in a press release:

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Damian Almiron Bonnin

“Being able to target the cancer stem cells within these tumors, like we did here, could potentially improve response to current chemotherapies and prevent recurrences, which would translate into an increase in patient survival rates.”

 

Stem Cell RoundUp: CIRM Clinical Trial Updates & Mapping Human Brain

It was a very CIRMy news week on both the clinical trial and discovery research fronts. Here are some the highlights:

Stanford cancer-fighting spinout to Genentech: ‘Don’t eat me’San Francisco Business Times

Ron Leuty, of the San Francisco Business Times, reported this week on not one, but two news releases from CIRM grantee Forty Seven, Inc. The company, which originated from discoveries made in the Stanford University lab of Irv Weissman, partnered with Genentech and Merck KGaA to launch clinical trials testing their drug, Hu5F9-G4, in combination with cancer immunotherapies. The drug is a protein antibody that blocks a “don’t eat me” signal that cancer stem cells hijack into order to evade destruction by a cancer patient’s immune system.

Genentech will sponsor two clinical trials using its FDA-approved cancer drug, atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ®), in combination with Forty Seven, Inc’s product in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and bladder cancer. CIRM has invested $5 million in another Phase 1 trial testing Hu5F9-G4 in AML patients. Merck KGaA will test a combination treatment of its drug avelumab, or Bavencio, with Forty-Seven’s Hu5F9-G4 in ovarian cancer patients.

In total, CIRM has awarded Forty Seven $40.5 million in funding to support the development of their Hu5F9-G4 therapy product.


Novel regenerative drug for osteoarthritis entering clinical trialsThe Scripps Research Institute

The California Institute for Biomedical Research (Calibr), a nonprofit affiliate of The Scripps Research Institute, announced on Tuesday that its CIRM-funded trial for the treatment of osteoarthritis will start treating patients in March. The trial is testing a drug called KA34 which prompts adult stem cells in joints to specialize into cartilage-producing cells. It’s hoped that therapy will regenerate the cartilage that’s lost in OA, a degenerative joint disease that causes the cartilage that cushions joints to break down, leading to debilitating pain, stiffness and swelling. This news is particularly gratifying for CIRM because we helped fund the early, preclinical stage research that led to the US Food and Drug Administration’s go-ahead for this current trial which is supported by a $8.4 million investment from CIRM.


And finally, for our Cool Stem Cell Image of the Week….

Genetic ‘switches’ behind human brain evolutionScience Daily

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This artsy scientific imagery was produced by UCLA researcher Luis del la Torre-Ubieta, the first author of a CIRM-funded studied published this week in the journal, Cell. The image shows slices of the mouse (bottom middle), macaque monkey (center middle), and human (top middle) brain to scale.

The dramatic differences in brain size highlights what sets us humans apart from those animals: our very large cerebral cortex, a region of the brain responsible for thinking and complex communication. Torre-Ubieta and colleagues in Dr. Daniel Geschwind’s laboratory for the first time mapped out the genetic on/off switches that regulate the growth of our brains. Their results reveal, among other things, that psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, depression and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have their origins in gene activity occurring in the very earliest stages of brain development in the fetus. The swirling strings running diagonally across the brain slices in the image depict DNA structures, called chromatin, that play a direct role in the genetic on/off switches.

How Tom Howing turned to stem cells to battle back against a deadly cancer

As we enter the new year, CIRM’s 2017 Annual Report will be posted in less than two weeks!  Here’s one of the people we are profiling in the report, a patient who took part in a CIRM-funded clinical trial.

Tom Howing

In March of 2015, Tom Howing was diagnosed with stage 4 cancer. Over the next 18 months, he underwent two rounds of surgery and chemotherapy. Each time the treatments held the cancer at bay for a while. But each time the cancer returned. Tom was running out of options and hope when he heard about a CIRM-funded clinical trial using a new approach.

The clinical trial uses a therapy that blocks a protein called CD47 that is found on the surface of cancer cells, including cancer stem cells which can evade traditional therapies. CD47 acts as a ‘don’t eat me’ signal that tells immune cells not to kill off the cancer cells. When this ‘don’t eat me’ signal is blocked by the antibody, the patient’s immune system is able to identify, target and kill the cancer stem cells.

“When I was diagnosed with cancer I knew I had battle ahead of me. After the cancer came back again they recommended I try this CD47 clinical trial. I said absolutely, let’s give it a spin.

“I guess one is always a bit concerned whenever you put the adjective “experimental” in front of anything. But I’ve always been a very optimistic and positive person and have great trust and faith in my caregivers.

“Whenever you are dealing with a Phase 1 clinical trial (the earliest stage where the goal is first to make sure it is safe), there are lots of unknowns.  Scans and blood tests came back showing that the cancer appears to be held in check. My energy level is fantastic. The treatment that I had is so much less aggressive than chemo, my quality of life is just outstanding.”

Tom says he feels fortunate to be part of the clinical trial because it is helping advance research, and could ultimately help many others like him.

“The most important thing I would say is, I want people to know there is always hope and to stay positive.”

He says he feels grateful to the people of California who created CIRM and the funding behind this project: “I say a very heartfelt thank you, that this was a good investment and a good use of public funds.”

He also wants the researchers, who spent many years developing this approach, to know that they are making a difference.

“To all those people who are putting in all the hours at the bench and microscope, it’s important for them to know that they are making a huge impact on the lives of real people and they should celebrate it and revel in it and take great pride in it.”

Second “Don’t Eat Me” Signal Identified in Cancer Cells, Points to New Immunotherapies

When the immune system comes up as a topic in everyday conversation, it’s usually related to fighting off a cold or flu. While our immune cells certainly do detect and neutralize invading bacteria and viruses, they also play a critical role in killing abnormal, cancerous cells from within our bodies.

“Don’t Eat Me” Signal 101
A white blood cell called a macrophage (macro = “big”; phage = “eater”) is part of the so-called innate immune system and acts as a first line of defense by patrolling our organs and gobbling up infected as well as cancerous cells (see macrophages in action in the cool video below).

Unfortunately, cancer cells possess the ability to cloak themselves and escape a macrophage’s engulfing grasp. Nearly all cancer cells carry a protein called CD47 on their surface. When CD47 binds to a protein called SIRPalpha on the surface of macrophages, a “don’t eat me” signal is triggered and the macrophage ignores the cancer cell.

Stanford researcher Irv Weissman and his team discovered this “don’t eat me” signal several years ago and showed that adding an antibody protein that binds tightly to CD47 interferes with the CD47/SIRPalpha signal. As a result, the anti-CD47 antibody deactivates the cancer cell’s “don’t eat me” signal and restores the macrophage’s ability to detect and kill the cancer cells.

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CD47 protein on surface of cancer cells triggers “don’t eat me signal” which can be blocked with anti-CD47 antibody. Image: Acrobiosystems

Because CD47 is found on the surface of most cancer cells, this anti-CD47 antibody represents an exciting new strategy for targeting cancer stem cells – the cells thought to maintain cancer growth and cause tumor relapse – in a wide variety of cancers. In fact, CIRM has provided funding for three clinical trials, one sponsored by Stanford University and two by Forty-Seven Inc. (a company that was spun out of Stanford), that are testing anti-CD47 therapy for the treatment of the blood cancer acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as well as colon cancer and other solid tumors.

“Reaching Clinical Trials” does not equal “The Research is Done”
Although these clinical trials are underway, the Weissman team continues to seek new insights related to blocking the CD47 “don’t eat me” signal. They observed that although anti-CD47 led to increased macrophage-induced killing of most cancer cell samples tested, some were resistant to anti-CD47 and remained cloaked from macrophages. And even the cancer cells that did respond to the antibody varied widely in the amount of increased killing by macrophages.

These results suggested that alternate processes may exist that allow some cancers to evade macrophages even when the CD47 “don’t eat me” signal is blocked. In a report published this week in Nature Immunology, the researchers report the identification of a second, independent “don’t eat me” signal, which may lead to more precise methods to disarm a cancer’s evasiveness.

To track down this alternate “don’t eat me” signal, they looked for, but didn’t find, correlations between specific types of cancer cells and the cancer’s resistance to anti-CD47 treatment.  So instead they analyzed surface proteins found on the various cancer cell samples and found that cancer cells that had high levels of MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) class I proteins were more likely to be resistant to anti-CD47 antibodies.

A Second “Don’t Eat Me” Signal
MHC class I proteins help another arm of the immune system, the adaptive immune response, detect what’s going inside a cell. They are found on nearly all cells and display, at the cell surface, bits of proteins sampled from inside the cell. If cells of the adaptive immune response, such as T or B cells, recognize one of those protein bits as abnormal or foreign, efficient killing mechanisms are kicked into high gear to destroy those cells.

But in the case of cancers cells, the MHC class I protein are harnessed as a “don’t eat me” signal by binding to a protein called LILRB1 on macrophages. When either the MHC class I proteins or LILRB1 were blocked, the “don’t eat me” signal was lifted and restored the macrophages’ ability to kill the cancer cells both in petri dish samples as well as in mice that carried human cancers.

Graduate student and co-lead author Amira Barkal described in a press release the impact of blocking both “don’t eat me” signals at the same time:

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Amira Barkal

“Simultaneously blocking both these pathways in mice resulted in the infiltration of the tumor with many types of immune cells and significantly promoted tumor clearance, resulting in smaller tumors overall. We are excited about the possibility of a double- or perhaps even triple-pronged therapy in humans in which we combine multiple blockades to cancer growth.”

The Big Picture for Cancer Immunotherapies
Because MHC protein class I proteins play an important role in stimulating immune cells called T cells to kill cancer cells as part of the adaptive immune response, the level of MHC protein on an individual patient’s cancer cells could serve as an indicator, or “biomarker”, for what type of cancer therapy to pursue.  The big picture implications of this idea are captured in the press release:

“Understanding the balance between adaptive and innate immunity is important in cancer immunotherapy. For example, it’s not uncommon for human cancer cells to reduce the levels of MHC class 1 on their surfaces to escape destruction by T cells. People with these types of tumors may be poor candidates for cancer immunotherapies meant to stimulate T cell activity against the cancer. But these cells may then be particularly vulnerable to anti-CD47 treatment, the researchers believe. Conversely, cancer cells with robust MHC class 1 on their surfaces may be less susceptible to anti-CD47.”

CIRM Board invests in three new stem cell clinical trials targeting arthritis, cancer and deadly infections

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Arthritis of the knee

Every day at CIRM we get calls from people looking for a stem cell therapy to help them fight a life-threatening or life-altering disease or condition. One of the most common calls is about osteoarthritis, a painful condition where the cartilage that helps cushion our joints is worn away, leaving bone to rub on bone. People call asking if we have something, anything, that might be able to help them. Now we do.

At yesterday’s CIRM Board meeting the Independent Citizens’ Oversight Committee or ICOC (the formal title of the Board) awarded almost $8.5 million to the California Institute for Biomedical Research (CALIBR) to test a drug that appears to help the body regenerate cartilage. In preclinical tests the drug, KA34, stimulated mesenchymal stem cells to turn into chondrocytes, the kind of cell found in healthy cartilage. It’s hoped these new cells will replace those killed off by osteoarthritis and repair the damage.

This is a Phase 1 clinical trial where the goal is primarily to make sure this approach is safe in patients. If the treatment also shows hints it’s working – and of course we hope it will – that’s a bonus which will need to be confirmed in later stage, and larger, clinical trials.

From a purely selfish perspective, it will be nice for us to be able to tell callers that we do have a clinical trial underway and are hopeful it could lead to an effective treatment. Right now the only alternatives for many patients are powerful opioids and pain killers, surgery, or turning to clinics that offer unproven stem cell therapies.

Targeting immune system cancer

The CIRM Board also awarded Poseida Therapeutics $19.8 million to target multiple myeloma, using the patient’s own genetically re-engineered stem cells. Multiple myeloma is caused when plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow and are a key part of our immune system, turn cancerous and grow out of control.

As Dr. Maria Millan, CIRM’s President & CEO, said in a news release:

“Multiple myeloma disproportionately affects people over the age of 65 and African Americans, and it leads to progressive bone destruction, severe anemia, infectious complications and kidney and heart damage from abnormal proteins produced by the malignant plasma cells.  Less than half of patients with multiple myeloma live beyond 5 years. Poseida’s technology is seeking to destroy these cancerous myeloma cells with an immunotherapy approach that uses the patient’s own engineered immune system T cells to seek and destroy the myeloma cells.”

In a news release from Poseida, CEO Dr. Eric Ostertag, said the therapy – called P-BCMA-101 – holds a lot of promise:

“P-BCMA-101 is elegantly designed with several key characteristics, including an exceptionally high concentration of stem cell memory T cells which has the potential to significantly improve durability of response to treatment.”

Deadly infections

The third clinical trial funded by the Board yesterday also uses T cells. Researchers at Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles were awarded $4.8 million for a Phase 1 clinical trial targeting potentially deadly infections in people who have a weakened immune system.

Viruses such as cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr, and adenovirus are commonly found in all of us, but our bodies are usually able to easily fight them off. However, patients with weakened immune systems resulting from chemotherapy, bone marrow or cord blood transplant often lack that ability to combat these viruses and it can prove fatal.

The researchers are taking T cells from healthy donors that have been genetically matched to the patient’s immune system and engineered to fight these viruses. The cells are then transplanted into the patient and will hopefully help boost their immune system’s ability to fight the virus and provide long-term protection.

Whenever you can tell someone who calls you, desperately looking for help, that you have something that might be able to help them, you can hear the relief on the other end of the line. Of course, we explain that these are only early-stage clinical trials and that we don’t know if they’ll work. But for someone who up until that point felt they had no options and, often, no hope, it’s welcome and encouraging news that progress is being made.

 

 

CIRM-Funded Clinical Trials Targeting Cancers

Welcome to the Month of CIRM!

As we mentioned in last Thursday’s blog, during the month of October we’ll be looking back at what CIRM has done since the agency was created by the people of California back in 2004. To start things off, we’ll be focusing on CIRM-funded clinical trials this week. Supporting clinical trials through our funding and partnership is a critical cornerstone to achieving our mission: to accelerate stem cell treatments to patients with unmet medical needs.

Over the next four days, we will post infographics that summarize CIRM-funded trials focused on therapies for cancer, neurologic disorders, heart and metabolic disease, and blood disorders. Today, we review the nine CIRM-funded clinical trial projects that target cancer. The therapeutic strategies are as varied as the types of cancers the researchers are trying to eradicate. But the common element is developing cutting edge methods to outsmart the cancer cell’s ability to evade standard treatment.

For more details about all CIRM-funded clinical trials, visit our clinical trials page and read our clinical trials brochure which provides brief overviews of each trial.