A cancer therapy developed at a CIRM Alpha Stem Cell Clinic tests its legs against breast cancer

Breast cancer cells

Three-dimensional culture of human breast cancer cells, with DNA stained blue and a protein on the cell surface membrane stained green. Image courtesy The National Institutes of Health

A Phase 1 clinical trial co-sponsored by CIRM and Oncternal Therapeutics, has started treating patients at UC San Diego (UCSD). The goal of the trial is to test the safety and anti-tumor activity of the Oncternal-developed drug, cirmtuzumab, in treating breast cancer.

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer to occur in women, regardless of race or ethnicity. More than 260,000 new cases are expected to be diagnosed this year in the United States alone. Typically, breast cancer cases are treated by a combination of surgery to remove the tumor locally, followed by some kind of systemic treatment, like chemotherapy, which can eliminate cancer cells in other parts of the body. In certain cases, however, surgery might not be a feasible option. Cirmtuzumab may be a viable option for these patients.

The drug acts by binding to a protein called ROR1, which is highly abundant on the surface of cancer cells. By blocking the protein Cirmtuzumab is able to promote cell death, stopping the cancer from spreading around the body.

Because ROR1 is also found on the surface of healthy cells there were concerns using cirmtuzumab could lead to damage to healthy tissue. However, a previous study revealed that using this kind of approach, at least in a healthy non-human primate model did not lead to any adverse clinical symptoms. Therefore, this protein is a viable target for cancer treatment and is particularly promising because it is a marker of many different types of cancers including leukemia, lung cancer and breast cancer.

Phase 1 clinical trials generally enroll a small number of patients who have do not have other treatment options. The primary goals are to determine if this approach is safe, if it causes any serious side-effects, what is the best dosage of the drug and how the drug works in the body. This clinical trial will enroll up to 15 patients who will receive cirmtuzumab in combination with paclitaxel (Taxol), a vetted chemotherapy drug, for six months.

Earlier this year, a similar clinical trial at UCSD began to test the effectiveness a of cirmtuzumab-based combination therapy to treat patients with B-cell cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This trial was also partially funded by CIRM.

In a press release, Dr. Barbara Parker, the co-lead on this study states:

“Our primary objective, of course, is to determine whether the drug combination is safe and tolerable and to measure its anti-tumor activity. If it proves safe and shows effectiveness against breast cancer, we can progress to subsequent trials to determine how best to use the drug combination.”

Deep dive into muscle repair yields new strategies to combat Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Researchers at the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) reported new findings this week that may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for people suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD, a muscle-wasting disease that affects 1 in 7250 males aged 5 to 24 years in the United States, is caused by a genetic mutation leading to the lack of a protein called dystrophin. Without dystrophin, muscle cells become fragile and are easily damaged. Instead of self-repair, the muscles are replaced by scar tissue, a process called fibrosis that leads to muscle degeneration and wasting.

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Dystrophin, a protein that maintains the structural integrity of muscle fibers, is missing in people with DMD. Image credit: Khan Academy

Boys with DMD first show signs of muscle weakness between ages 3-5 and often stop walking by the time they’re teenagers. Eventually the muscles critical for breathing and heart function stop working. Average life expectancy is 26 and there is no cure.

The SBP scientists are aiming to treat DMD by boosting muscle repair in affected individuals. But to do that, they sought to better understand how muscle regeneration works in the first place. In the current study, they focused their efforts on so-called fibro/adipogenic precursor (FAP) cells which, in response to acute injury, appear to play a role in stimulating muscle stem cells to divide and replace damaged muscle in healthy individuals. But FAPs are also implicated in the muscle wasting and scarring that’s seen in DMD.

By examining the gene activity of single FAP cells from mouse models of acute injury and DMD, the researchers identified a sub-population of FAP cells (sub-FAPs). Further study of these sub-FAPs showed that during early stages of muscle regeneration, these cells promote muscle stem cell activation but then at later stages, sub-FAPs – identified by a cell surface protein called Vcam1 – stimulate fibrosis. It turns out that during healthy acute muscle injury, the sub-FAPs with cell-surface Vcam1 protein are readily eaten up and removed by immune cells thereby avoiding muscle fibrosis. But in the DMD mouse model, removal of these sub-FAPs is impaired and instead collagen deposits and muscle fibrosis occur which are hallmarks of the progressive degeneration seen in DMD.

Barbora Malecova, Ph.D., a first author of the study, explained the implications of these results in a press release:

“This study elucidates the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that removing or modulating the activity of Vcam1-positive sub-FAPs, which promote fibrosis, could be an effective treatment for DMD.”

The lab, led by Pier Lorenzo Puri, M.D., next will explore the possibility of finding drugs that target the Vcam1 sub-FAPs which in turn could help prevent fibrosis in DMD.

The study, funded in part by CIRM, appears in Nature Communications. CIRM is also funding a Phase 2 clinical trial testing a stem cell-based therapy that aims to improve the life-threatening heart muscle degeneration that occurs in DMD patients.

Support cells have different roles in blood stem cell maintenance before and after stress

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Expression of pleiotrophin (green) in bone marrow blood vessels (red) and stromal cells (white) in normal mice (left), and in mice 24 hours after irradiation (right). UCLA Broad Stem Cell Research Center/Cell Stem Cell

A new study published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, reveals how different types of cells in the bone marrow are responsible for supporting blood stem cell maintenance before and after injury.

It was already well known in the field that two different cell types, namely endothelial cells (which line blood vessels) and stromal cells (which make up connective tissue, or tissue that provides structural support for any organ), are responsible for maintaining the population of blood stem cells in the bone marrow. However, how these cells and the molecules they secrete impact blood stem cell development and maintenance is not well understood.

Hematopoietic stem cells are responsible for generating the multiple different types of cells found in blood, from our oxygen carrying red blood cells to the many different types of white blood cells that make up our immune system.

Dr. John Chute’s group at UCLA had previously discovered that a molecule called pleiotrophin, or PTN, is important for promoting self-renewal of the blood stem cell population. They did not, however, understand which cells secrete this molecule and when.

To answer this question, the scientists developed mouse models that did not produce PTN in different types of bone marrow cells, such as endothelial cells and stromal cells. Surprisingly, they saw that the inability of stromal cells to produce PTN decreased the blood stem cell population, but deletion of PTN in endothelial cells did not affect the blood stem cell niche.

Even more interestingly, the researchers found that in animals that were subjected to an environmental stressor, in this case, radiation, the result was reversed: endothelial cell PTN was necessary for blood stem cell renewal, whereas stromal cell PTN was not. While an important part of the knowledge base for blood stem cell biology, the reason for this switch in PTN secretion at times of homeostasis and disease is still unknown.

As Dr. Chute states in a press release, this result could have important implications for cancer treatments such as radiation:

“It may be possible to administer modified, recombinant versions of pleiotrophin to patients to accelerate blood cell regeneration. This strategy also may apply to patients undergoing bone marrow transplants.”

Another important consideration to take away from this work is that animal models developed in the laboratory should take into account the possibility that blood stem cell maintenance and regeneration is distinctly controlled under healthy and disease state. In other words, cellular function in one state is not always indicative of its role in another state.

This work was partially funded by a CIRM Leadership Award.

 

 

Saying goodbye to a good friend and a stem cell pioneer: Karl Trede

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Sometimes even courage and determination are not enough. Karl Trede had courage and determination in droves as he fought a 12 year battle against cancer. He recently lost that battle. But he remains an inspiration for all who knew him.

I got to know Karl for our 2016 Annual Report. Karl had been diagnosed with throat cancer in 2006. He underwent surgery to remove his vocal cords and the cancer seemed to be in remission. But then it returned, this time having spread to his lungs. His doctors said they had pretty much run out of options but would Karl consider trying something new, something no one else had tried before; stem cells.

Karl told me he didn’t hesitate.

“I said “sure”. I don’t believe I knew at the time that I was going to be the first one but I thought I’d give it a whirl. It was an experience for me. It was eye opening. I wasn’t real concerned about being the first, I figured I was going to have to go someday so I guess if I was the first person and something really went wrong then they’d definitely learn something. So, to me, that was kind of worth my time.”

Happily nothing went wrong and the team behind the therapy (Forty Seven Inc.) definitely learned something, they learned a lot about the correct dosage for patients; invaluable information in treating future patients.

Karl’s cancer was held at bay and he was able to do the one thing that brought him more pleasure than anything else; spend time with his family, his wife Vita, their four sons and their families. He doted on his grand kids and got to see them grow, and they got to know him.

Recently the cancer returned and this time there was no holding it at bay. To the end Karl remained cheerful and positive.

KARL poster

In our office is a huge poster of Karl with the words “Every Moment Counts” at the bottom. It’s a reminder to us why we come to work every day, why the people at Forty Seven Inc. and all the other researchers we support work so hard for years and years; to try and give people like Karl a few extra moments with his family.

At the top of the poster the word “Courage” is emblazoned across it. Karl has a huge smile on his face. Karl was certainly courageous, a stem cell pioneer willing to try something no one else ever had. He was also very modest.

Here is Karl speaking to our governing Board in December 2016

When I spoke to him in 2016, despite all he had gone through in his fight against cancer, he said he had no regrets:

“I consider myself very fortunate. I’m a lucky guy.”

Those of us who got to spend just a little time with Karl know that we were the lucky ones.

Our hearts go out to his family and friends for their loss.

 

 

A stepping stone for bringing stem cell therapy to patients with ALS

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Imagine being told that you have a condition that gradually causes you to lose the ability to control your body movements, from picking up a pencil to walking to even breathing. Such is the reality for the nearly 6,000 people who are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) every year, in the United States alone.

ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a neurodegenerative disease that causes the degradation of motor neurons, or nerves that are responsible for all voluntary muscle movements, like the ones mentioned above. It is a truly devastating disease with a particularly poor prognosis of two to five years from the time of diagnosis to death. There are only two approved drugs for ALS and these do not stop it but only slow progression of the disease; and even then only for some patients, not all.

A ray of hope for such a bleak treatment landscape, has been the advent of stem cell therapy options over the past decade. Of particular excitement is the recent discovery made Nasser Aghdami’s group at the Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology in Iran.

Two small Phase I clinical trials detailed in Cell Journal demonstrated that injecting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from the patient’s own bone marrow, was safe when administered via injection into the bloodstream or the spinal cord. Previous studies had shown that MSCs both revived motor neurons and extended the lifespan in a rodent model of the disease.

In humans, many studies have shown that MSCs taken from bone marrow are safe for use in humans, but these studies have disagreed about whether injection via the bloodstream or spinal cord route is the most effective way to deliver the therapy. This report confirms that both routes of administration are safe as no adverse clinical events were observed for either group throughout the study time frame.

While an important stepping stone, there is still a long way to go. For example, while no adverse clinical events were observed in either group, the overall ALS-FRS score, a clinical scale to determine ALS disease progression, worsened in all patients over the course of the study. Whether this was just due to natural progression of the disease, or because of the stem cell treatment is difficult to determine given the small size of the cohort.

One reason the scientists suggest that could explain the disease decline is because the MSCs were taken from the ALS patients themselves, which means these cells were likely not functioning optimally prior to re-introduction into the patient. To remedy this, they hope to test the effect of MSCs taken from healthy donors in both injection routes in the future. They also need a larger cohort of patients to determine whether or not there is a difference in the therapeutic effect of administering stem cells via the two different routes.

While it may seem that the results from this clinical trial are not particularly groundbreaking or innovative, it is important to remember that these incremental improvements through clinical trials are critical for bringing safe and effective therapies to the market. For more information on the different phases of clinical trials, please refer to this video.

CIRM is also funding clinical trials targeting ALS. One is a Phase 1 trial out of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and another is a Phase 3 trial with the company Brainstorm Cell Therapeutics.

Join us tomorrow at noon for “Ask the Stem Cell Team about Sickle Cell Disease”, a FaceBook Live Event

As an early kick off to National Sickle Cell Awareness Month – which falls in September every year – CIRM is hosting a “Ask the Stem Cell Team” FaceBook Live event tomorrow, August 28th, from noon to 1pm (PDT).

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The live broadcast will feature two scientists and a patient advocate who are working hard to bring an end to sickle cell disease, a devastating, inherited blood disorder that largely targets the African-American community and to a lesser degree the Hispanic community.

You can join us by logging onto Facebook and going to this broadcast link: https://bit.ly/2o4aCAd

Also, make sure to “like” our FaceBook page before the event to receive a notification when we’ve gone live for this and future events. If you miss tomorrow’s broadcast, not to worry. We’ll be posting it on our Facebook video page, our website, and YouTube channel shortly afterwards.

We want to answer your most pressing questions, so please email them directly to us beforehand at info@cirm.ca.gov.

For a sneak preview here’s a short video featuring our patient advocate speaker, Adrienne Shapiro. And see below for more details about Ms. Shapiro and our two other guests.

Adrienne Shapiro [Video: Todd Dubnicoff/CIRM]

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    Donald Kohn, MD

    Don Kohn, M.D. is a professor in the departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics in UCLA’s Broad Stem Cell Research Center. Dr. Kohn has a CIRM Clinical Stage Research grant in support of his team’s Phase 1 clinical trial which is genetically modifying a patient’s own blood stem cells to produce a correct version of hemoglobin, the protein that is mutated in these patients, which causes abnormal sickle-like shaped red blood cells. These misshapen cells lead to dangerous blood clots, debilitating pain and even death. The genetically modified stem cells will be given back to the patient to create a new sickle cell-free blood supply.

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    Mark Walters, MD

    Mark Walters, M.D., is a pediatric hematologist/oncologist and is director of the Blood & Marrow Transplantation Program at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital Oakland. Dr. Walters has a CIRM-funded Therapeutic Translation Research grant which aims to improve Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) therapy by preparing for a clinical trial that might cure SCD after giving back sickle gene-corrected blood stem cells – using cutting-edge CRISPR gene editing technology – to a person with SCD. If successful, this would be a universal life-saving and cost-saving therapy.

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    Adrienne Shapiro

    Adrienne Shapiro is a patient advocate for SCD and the co-founder of the Axis Advocacy SCD patient education and support website. Shapiro is the fourth generation of mothers in her family to have children born with sickle cell disease.  She is vocal stem cell activist, speaking to various groups about the importance of CIRM’s investments in both early stage research and clinical trials. In January, she was awarded a Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Action Award at the 2018 World Stem Cell Summit.

Stem cell stories that caught our eye: CIRM-funded scientist wins prestigious prize and a tooth trifecta

CIRM-grantee wins prestigious research award

Do we know how to pick ‘em or what? For a number of years now we have been funding the work of Stanford’s Dr. Marius Wernig, who is doing groundbreaking work in helping advance stem cell research. Just how groundbreaking was emphasized this week when he was named as the winner of the 2018 Ogawa-Yamanaka Stem Cell Prize.

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Marius Wernig, MD, PhD. [Photo: Stanford University]

The prestigious award, from San Francisco’s Gladstone Institutes, honors Wernig for his innovative work in developing a faster, more direct method of turning ordinary cells into, for example, brain cells, and for his work advancing the development of disease models for diseases of the brain and skin disorders.

Dr. Deepak Srivastava, the President of Gladstone, announced the award in a news release:

“Dr. Wernig is a leader in his field with extraordinary accomplishments in stem cell reprogramming. His team was the first to develop neuronal cells reprogrammed directly from skin cells. He is now investigating therapeutic gene targeting and cell transplantation–based strategies for diseases with mutations in a single gene.”

Wernig was understandably delighted at the news:

“It is a great honor to receive this esteemed prize. My lab’s goal is to discover novel biology using reprogrammed cells that aids in the development of effective treatments.”

Wernig will be presented with the award, and a check for $150,000, at a ceremony on Oct. 15 at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco.

A stem cell trifecta for teeth research

It was a tooth trifecta among stem cell scientists this week. At Tufts University School of Medicine, researchers made an important advance in the development of bioengineered teeth. The current standard for tooth replacement is a dental implant. This screw-shaped device acts as an artificial tooth root that’s inserted into the jawbone. Implants have been used for 30 years and though successful they can lead to implant failure since they lack many of the properties of natural teeth. By implanting postnatal dental cells along with a gel material into mice, the team demonstrated, in a Journal of Dental Research report, the development of natural tooth buds. As explained in Dentistry Today, these teeth “include features resembling natural tooth buds such as the dental epithelial stem cell niche, enamel knot signaling centers, transient amplifying cells, and mineralized dental tissue formation.”

Another challenge with the development of a bioengineered tooth replacement is reestablishing nerve connections within the tooth, which plays a critical role in its function and protection but doesn’t occur spontaneously after an injury. A research team across the “Pond” at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, showed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of a nerve fiber can help the nerve cells make connections with bioengineered teeth. The study was also published in the Journal of Dental Research.

And finally, a research report about stem cells and the dreaded root canal. When the living soft tissue, or dental pulp, of a tooth becomes infected, the primary course of action is the removal of that tissue via a root canal. The big downside to this procedure is that it leaves the patient with a dead tooth which can be susceptible to future infections. To combat this side effect, researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology report the development of a potential remedy: a gel containing a fragment of a protein that stimulates the growth of new blood vessels as well as a fragment of a protein that spurs dental stem cells to divide and grow. Though this technology is still at an early stage, it promises to help keep teeth alive and healthy after root canal. The study was presented this week at the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society.

Here’s an animated video that helps explain the research:

3D printed neuronal networks are an important step forward in treating spinal cord injury

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3D printed live neuronal cells. Image courtesy of the University of Minnesota.

Approximately 300,000 people in the United States live with spinal cord injury (SCI), and 17,000 new cases are reported every year. With no cure, the primary treatment option for people with SCI is rehabilitation with a physical therapist combined with medications to control the pain. Given the relatively permanent nature of these injuries, a new study conducted by Dr. Michael McAlpine and Dr. Ann Parr’s groups at the University of Minnesota is particularly exciting. These scientists have developed a 3D-printing technique to generate a network of neuronal cells in the lab, which they hope will be useful to treat patients with long term SCI. This is the first instance of printing and differentiating neuronal stem cells in a lab. Let’s take a look at how they did it!

The investigators started with induced pluripotent stem cells derived from adult cells (ex. blood, skin etc…), which were then used to bioprint the neurons of interest. They not only printed neurons, but also neuronal support cells called oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for ensuring that neurons can transmit messages efficiently. The uniqueness of their approach lies in their printing process, where the cells were printed in the context of a silicone mold. The silicone “guide” promoted neuronal differentiation as well as provided a scaffold for the scientists to spatially organize the architecture of the cells they generated. Both spatial organization and the presence of the neuronal support cells is particularly important because previous studies have shown that while injecting rodents with neural stem cells has improved SCI, the longevity of these results was compromised by a lack of support system for the injected cells. Therefore, the ability to generate both a functional cell type as well as a spatially accurate structure is important to make this neuronal printing system relevant for treating patients.

To confirm that printed cells were functional, the investigators used calcium flux assays, which demonstrated that the neuronal networks generated were able to communicate with each other. Not only were the cells healthy and functional, but their viability was exceptional: 75% of the cells stayed alive, which is remarkable for cells printed in a laboratory.

While there is still a long way to go before this type of treatment can used to treat SCI in humans, the potential for helping people with long term spinal cord injury is significant. Dr. Parr states:

“We’ve found that relaying any signals across the injury could improve functions for the patients. There’s a perception that people with spinal cord injuries will only be happy if they can walk again. In reality, most want simple things like bladder control or to be able to stop uncontrollable movements of their legs. These simple improvements in function could greatly improve their lives.”

The possibility of implanted neuronal stem cells being effective to treat SCI is also being investigated with the CIRM-funded Asterias trial. To check out more information about this work, read our blog post here and the clinical trial details here.

Stem cell stories that caught our eye: 3 blind mice no more and a tale of two tails

Stem cell image of the week: The demise of Three Blind Mice nursery rhyme (Todd Dubnicoff)
Our stem cell image of the week may mark the beginning of the end of the Three Blind Mice nursery rhyme and, more importantly, usher in a new treatment strategy for people suffering from vision loss. That’s because researchers from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York report in Nature the ability to reprogram support cells in the eyes of blind mice to become photoreceptors, the light-sensing cells that enable sight. The image is an artistic rendering of the study results by team led Dr. Bo Chen, PhD.

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An artist’s rendering incorporates the images of the Müller glia-derived rod photoreceptors. Image credit: Bo Chen, Ph.D.

The initial inspiration for this project came from an observation in zebrafish. These creatures have the remarkable ability to restore vision after severe eye injuries. It turns out that, in response to injury, a type of cell in the eye called Muller glia – which helps maintain the structure and function of the zebrafish retina – transforms into rod photoreceptors, which allow vision in low light.

Now, Muller glia are found in humans and mice too, so the research team sought to harness this shape-shifting, sight-restoring ability of the Muller glia but in the absence of injury. They first injected a gene into the eyes of mice born blind that stimulated the glia cells to divide and grow. Then, to mimic the reprogramming process seen in zebrafish, specific factors were injected to cause the glia to change identity into photoreceptors.

The researchers showed that the glia-derived photoreceptors functioned just like those observed in normal mice and made the right connections with nerve cells responsible for sending visual information to the brain. The team’s next steps are to not only show the cells are functioning properly in the eye and brain but to also do behavioral studies to confirm that the mice can do tasks that require vision.

If these studies pan out, it could lead to a new therapeutic strategy for blinding diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. Rather than transplanting replacement cells, this treatment approach would spur our own eyes to repair themselves. In the meantime, CIRM-funded researchers have studies currently in clinical trials testing stem cell-based treatments for retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration.

A tale of two tails: one regenerates, the other, not quite so much (Kevin McCormack) One of the wonders of nature, well two if you want to be specific, is how both salamanders and lizards are able to regrow their tails if they lose them. But there is a difference. While salamanders can regrow a tail that is almost identical to the original, lizard’s replacements are rather less impressive. Now researchers have found out why.

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In these fluorescence microscopy images, cross sections of original lizard and salamander tails (left) show cartilage (green) and nerve cells (red). In the regenerated tails (right), the lizard’s is made up mostly of cartilage, while the salamander also has developed new nerve cells. Image: Thomas Lozito

The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows how a lizard’s new tail doesn’t have bone but instead has cartilage, and also lacks nerve cells. The key apparently is the stem cells both use to regenerate the tail. Salamanders use neural stem cells from their spinal cord and turn them into other types of nervous system cell, such as neurons. Lizards neural stem cells are not able to do this.

The researchers, from the University of Pittsburgh, tested their findings by placing neural stem cells from the axolotl salamander into tail stumps from geckos. They noted that, as those tails regrew, some of those transplanted cells turned into neurons.

In an interview in Science News, study co-author Thomas Lozito says the team hope to take those findings and, using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing tool, see if they can regenerate body parts in other animals:

 “My goal is to make the first mouse that can regenerate its tail. We’re kind of using lizards as a stepping-stone.”

Regenerative Medicine by the numbers: a snapshot of how the field is progressing

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Statistics don’t usually make for very exciting blog fodder, but they can be useful in charting progress. Case in point, the recent quarterly report from the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine (ARM), a global advocate and industry group for the field.

In the report ARM takes an in-depth look at cell therapy, gene therapy, tissue engineering and other trends in the regenerative medicine field.

Among the more notable findings are:

  • Companies in the regenerative medicine space collectively raised more than $4.1 billion in the second quarter of this year, up 164 percent over the same period in 2017.
  • Companies focused on cell therapy raised $2.2 billion, up 416 percent over the same period last year.
  • More and more companies in the space are turning to the public markets. So far this year they collectively raised $913.4 million in IPOs (initial public offerings – the very first sale of a company’s stock to the public), up from $254 million during all of last year.
  • Nearly 977 clinical trials testing such therapies are in progress across the globe; more than half of them are trying to treat cancer.

In a news release, Janet Lynch Lambert, ARM’s CEO, was understandably upbeat:

“There has been a tremendous amount of forward momentum during the first half of this year, both clinically and commercially. We’re excited for the continued growth of the regenerative medicine sector, and what it means for patients worldwide.”

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