It’s World Kidney Day: Highlighting CIRM’s Investments in Treating Kidney Failure

WKD-Logo-HiToday is World Kidney Day. Hundreds of events across the globe are taking place “to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to our overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its associated health problems worldwide.” (Side note: in recognition that today is also International Women’s Day, World Kidney Day’s theme this year is “Kidney’s & Women: Include, Value, Empower.)

To honor this day, we’re highlighting how CIRM is playing its part in that mission. The infographic below provides big picture summaries of the four CIRM-funded clinical trials that are currently testing stem cell-based therapies for kidney failure, a condition that affects well over 600,000 Americans.

When a person’s kidneys fail, their body can no longer filter out waste products and extra fluid from the blood which leads to life-threatening complications. About 30% of those affected in the U.S. have organ transplants. Due to the limited availability of donor organs, the other 70% need dialysis, a blood filtration therapy, that requires several trips a week to a special clinic.

Both treatment options have serious limitations. Organ recipients have to take drugs that prevent organ rejections for the rest of their lives. Over time, these drugs are toxic and can increase a patient’s risk of infection, heart disease, cancer and diabetes. In the case of dialysis treatment, the current procedure uses a plastic tube called a shunt to connect to a patient’s vein. These shunts are far from ideal and can lead to infection, blood clots and can be rejected by the patient’s immune system. These complications probably play a role in the average life expectancy of 5-10 years for dialysis patients.

Four CIRM-funded clinical trials aim to circumvent these drawbacks. Humacyte has received over $24 million from the Agency to support two clinical trials that are testing an alternative to the plastic shunt used in dialysis treatment. The company has developed a bioengineered vessel that is implanted in the patient’s arm and over time is populated with the patient’s own stem cells which develop into a natural blood vessel. The trials will determine if the bioengineered vessel is superior to the shunt in remaining open for longer periods of time and with lower incidence of interventions due to blood clots and infections.

The other two CIRM-funded trials, one headed by Stanford University and the other by Medeor Therapeutics, aims to eliminate the need for long-life, anti-rejection medicine after kidney transplant. Both trials use a similar strategy: blood stem cells and immune cells from the organ donor are infused into the patient receiving the organ. If all goes as planned, those donor cells will engraft into and mix with the recipient’s immune system, making organ rejection less likely and ending the need for immune-system suppressing drugs.

For more details visit our Clinical Trial Dashboard.


Stem Cell Roundup: Lab-grown meat, stem cell vaccines for cancer and a free kidney atlas for all

Here are the stem cell stories that caught our eye this week.

Cool Stem Cell Photo: Kidneys in the spotlight

At an early stage, a nephron forming in the human kidney generates an S-shaped structure. Green cells will generate the kidneys’ filtering device, and blue and red cells are responsible for distinct nephron activities. (Image/Stacy Moroz and Tracy Tran, Andrew McMahon Lab, USC Stem Cell)

I had to take a second look at this picture when I first saw it. I honestly thought it was someone’s scientific interpretation of Vincent van Gogh’s Starry Night. What this picture actually represents is a nephron. Your kidney has over a million nephrons packed inside it. These tiny structures filter our blood and remove waste products by producing urine.

Scientists at USC Stem Cell are studying kidney development in animals and humans in hopes of gaining new insights that could lead to improved stem cell-based technologies that more accurately model human kidneys (by coincidence, we blogged about another human kidney study on Tuesday). Yesterday, these scientists published a series of articles in the Journal of American Society of Nephrology that outlines a new, open-source kidney atlas they created. The atlas contains a catalog of high resolution images of different structures representing the developing human kidney.

CIRM-funded researcher Andrew McMahon summed it up nicely in a USC news release:

“Our research bridges a critical gap between animal models and human applications. The data we collected and analyzed creates a knowledge-base that will accelerate stem cell-based technologies to produce mini-kidneys that accurately represent human kidneys for biomedical screening and replacement therapies.”

And here’s a cool video of a developing kidney kindly provided by the authors of this study.

Video Caption: Kidney development begins with a population of “progenitor cells” (green), which are similar to stem cells. Some progenitor cells (red) stream out and aggregate into a ball, the renal vesicle (gold). As each renal vesicle grows, it radically morphs into a series of shapes — can you spot the two S-shaped bodies (green-orange-pink structures)? – and finally forms a nephron. Each human kidney contains one million mature nephrons, which form an expansive tubular network (white) that filters the blood, ensuring a constant environment for all of our body’s functions. (Video courtesy of Nils Lindstorm, Andy McMahon, Seth Ruffins and the Microscopy Core Facility at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at the Keck School of Medicine of USC)

Lab-grown hamburgers coming to a McDonald’s near you…

“Lab-grown meat is coming, whether you like it or not” sure makes a splashy headline! This week, Wired magazine featured two Bay Area startup companies, Just For All and Finless Foods, dedicated to making meat-in-a-dish in hopes of one day reducing our dependence on livestock. The methods behind their products aren’t exactly known. Just For All is engineering “clean meat” from cells. On the menu currently are cultured chorizo, nuggets, and foie gras. I bet you already guessed what Finless Foods specialty is. The company is isolating stem-like muscle progenitor cells from fish meat in hopes of identifying a cell that will robustly create the cell types found in fish meat.

Just’s tacos made with lab-grown chorizo. (Wired)

I find the Wired article particularly interesting because of the questions and issues Wired author Matt Simon raises. Are clean meat companies really more environmentally sustainable than raising livestock? Currently, there isn’t enough data to prove this is the case, he argues. And what about the feasibility of convincing populations that depend on raising livestock for a living to go “clean”? And what about flavor and texture? Will people be willing to eat a hamburger that doesn’t taste and ooze in just the right way?

As clean meat technologies continue to advance and become more affordable, I’ll be interested to see what impact they will have on our eating habits in the future.

Induced pluripotent stem cells could be the next cancer vaccine

Our last story is about a new Cell Stem Cell study that suggests induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could be developed into a vaccine against cancer. CIRM-funded scientist Joseph Wu and his team at Stanford University School of Medicine found that injecting iPSCs into mice that were transplanted with breast cancer cells reduced the formation of tumors.

The team dug deeper and discovered that iPSCs shared similarities with cancer cells with respect to the panel of genes they express and the types of proteins they carry on their cell surface. This wasn’t surprising to them as both cells represent an immature development stage. Because of these similarities, injecting iPSCs primed the mouse’s immune system to recognize and reject similar cells like cancer cells.

The team will next test their approach on human cancer cells in the lab. Joseph Wu commented on the potential future of iPSC-based vaccines for cancer in a Stanford news release:

“Although much research remains to be done, the concept itself is pretty simple. We would take your blood, make iPS cells and then inject the cells to prevent future cancers. I’m very excited about the future possibilities.”


In a stem cell first, functioning human kidney structures grown in living animals

One of the ultimate quests in the stem cell field – growing organs to repair diseased or damaged ones – took a significant step forward this week. In a first, researchers at the University of Manchester, in the U.K., showed that human embryonic stem cell-derived kidney tissue forms into functional kidney structures, capable of filtering blood and producing urine, when implanted under the skin of mice.


Cross-section of human stem cell-derived kidney tissue grown in mouse. When injected in blood, dextran (green) was taken up by the kidney structure, proving it’s functional. (Credit University of Manchester/ Stem Cell Reports)

When a person has end-stage kidney disease, their body can no longer filter out waste products and extra fluid from the blood which leads to serious health complications, even death. Blood filtration therapy, called dialysis, can substitute for a kidney but the average life expectancy is only about 10 years for patients receiving dialysis. Kidney transplants are another answer for treating kidney disease, but organ availability is in limited supply. About 2.2 million people die worldwide from a lack of access to these treatment options. So other therapeutic approaches to help end-stage kidney disease sufferers are sorely needed.

The current study, published in Stem Cell Reports, used human embryonic stem cells to grow kidney tissue in the lab. While the lab-grown tissues showed hallmarks of kidney structures, they were unable to fully develop into mature kidney structures in a culture dish. So the scientists tried implanting the human kidney tissue under the skin of mice and left it there for 12 weeks. The team showed that kidney structures, called glomeruli, which play a key role in filtering the blood, formed over that time and had become vascularized, or connected with the animal’s blood supply. The team further showed those structures were functional by injecting a fluorescently tagged substance called dextran. Tracing the fate of the dextran in the blood showed that it had been filtered and taken up by tubular structures in the kidney tissue which indicates urine production had begun.

Professor Sue Kimber, one of the leaders of the study, summed up the significance and current limitations of these results in a press release:


Sue Kimber

“We have proved beyond any doubt these structures function as kidney cells by filtering blood and producing urine – though we can’t yet say what percentage of function exists. What is particularly exciting is that the structures are made of human cells which developed an excellent capillary blood supply, becoming linked to the vasculature of the mouse.

Though this structure was formed from several hundred glomeruli, and humans have about a million in their kidneys – this is clearly a major advance. It constitutes a proof of principle- but much work is yet to be done.”

To be sure, curing a person suffering from end-stage kidney disease with a stem cell-grown kidney is some ways off. But, on the nearer horizon, this advance will provide a means to study the human kidney in a living animal, a powerful tool for uncovering insights into kidney disease and new therapeutic approaches.

CIRM Invests in Medeor Therapeutics’ Phase 3 Clinical Trial to Help Kidney Transplant Patients

Steven Deitcher, President and CEO of Medeor Therapeutics, receives $18.8 million clinical award from CIRM to fund Phase 3 trial to help kidney transplant patients. (Photo: Todd Dubnicoff/CIRM)

Last week, CIRM’s governing Board approved funding for a Phase 3 clinical trial testing a stem cell-based treatment that could eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drugs in some patients receiving kidney transplants.

Over 650,000 Americans suffer from end-stage kidney disease – a life-threatening condition caused by the loss of kidney function. The best available treatment for these patients is a kidney transplant from a genetically matched, living donor. However, patients who receive a transplant must take life-long immunosuppressive drugs to prevent their immune system from rejecting the transplanted organ. Over time, these drugs are toxic and can also increase a patient’s risk of infection, heart disease, cancer and diabetes.  Despite these drugs, many patients still lose transplanted organs due to rejection.

Reducing or eliminating the need for immunosuppressive drugs in kidney transplant patients is an unmet medical need that our Agency is well aware of. That’s why on Friday at our January ICOC meeting, the CIRM Board voted to invest $18.8 million dollars in a Phase III clinical trial sponsored by Medeor Therapeutics that will address this need head on.

Medeor, a biotechnology company located in San Mateo, California, is developing a stem cell-based therapy, called MDR-101, that they hope will eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drugs in genetically matched kidney transplant patients.

The company takes blood-forming stem cells and immune cells from the organ donor and infuses them into the patient receiving the donor’s kidney. Introducing the donor’s immune cells into the patient creates a condition called “mixed chimerism” where immune cells from the patient and the donor are able to co-exist. In this way, the patient’s immune system is able to adapt to and tolerate the donor’s kidney, potentially eliminating the need for the immunosuppressive drugs that are normally necessary to prevent transplant rejection.

CIRM President and CEO, Dr. Maria Millan, commented in a CIRM news release:

Maria Millan

“These immunosuppressive drugs not only can cause harmful side effects, but they are also expensive and some patients lose their transplant either because they can’t afford to pay for the drugs, or because their effectiveness is not adequate. Medeor’s stem cell-based therapy aims to prevent transplant rejection and eliminate the need for immunosuppression in these kidney transplant patients. If they are successful, this approach could be developed for other organs including heart, liver, and lung transplants.”

CIRM funding will enable Medeor to test their stem cell-based treatment in a Phase 3 clinical trial. If the trial meets its objective in allowing patients to eliminate immunosuppressive drug use without rejection, Medeor may apply to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for permission to market their therapy to patients in the United States.

Dr. Steven Deitcher, co-founder, President and CEO of Medeor, touched on the impact that this CIRM award will have on the advancement of their trial:

“We are very grateful for the financial support and validation from CIRM for the MDR-101 program. CIRM funding accelerates our timelines, and these timelines are what stand between needy patients and potential transformative therapies. This CIRM award combined with investor support represent a public-private collaboration that we hope will make a difference in the lives of organ transplant recipients in California, the entire U.S., and beyond.”

This is the fourth clinical trial targeting kidney disease that CIRM’s Board has funded. CIRM is also funding a Phase I trial testing a different stem cell-based therapy for end-stage kidney disease patients out of Stanford University led by Dr. Samuel Strober.

To learn more about the research CIRM is funding targeting kidney disease, check out our kidney disease fact sheet on our website.

CHLA study explains how stem cells slow progression of kidney disorder

Not all stem cell-based therapies act by replacing diseased or damaged cells. Many treatments in clinical development rely on the injected stem cells releasing proteins which trigger the slow down or even reversal of damage caused by disease or injury. A new CIRM-funded study that’s developing a stem cell therapy for a rare kidney disease uncovered a similar mechanism but with an intriguing twist. The research, published this week in Scientific Reports, suggests that the stem cells shed tiny vesicles that essentially act like sponges by trapping proteins thought to be responsible for damaging the kidney.

Amniotic fluid stem cells: a promising approach to treating kidney disease


Network of blood-filtering blood vessels in the kidney. Image: Wikipedia

In previous studies the research team, from the Saban Research Institute of Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA), had shown that amniotic fluid stem cells can help slow the progress of Alport syndrome when injected into the kidneys of mice engineered to mimic symptoms of the disease. Alport syndrome is a genetic disease that damages the kidney’s capillaries – tiny blood vessels – which help filter the body’s blood supply. This progressive damage causes blood and proteins to leak into the urine, and leads to high blood pressure and swelling in the legs and around the eyes.

Cells in the kidney release a protein called VEGF, a stimulator of new blood vessel growth, which plays an important role in maintaining just the right balance of capillaries within the blood-filtering structures of the kidney. Excessive levels of VEGF have been associated with many diseases including kidney disorders like Alport syndrome. Although the protective effects of amniotic fluid stem cells in the mouse model of Alport syndrome were not understood, the CHLA team suspected that the cells could be interfering with the effects of the extra VEGF.

Extracellular vesicles: just another trick that nature has up its sleeve
Specifically, the scientists examined whether so-called extracellular vesicles released from the stem cells are responsible for reducing VEGF activity and slowing the disease. These vesicles are tiny pieces of cell membrane that bud off from the stem cell and carry along proteins and other cell components. Scientists used to think the vesicles were just cellular discards but countless studies have established that they actually play an important role in communication between cells.

The team showed that the vesicles released by amniotic fluid stem cells contained receptors for VEGF. When those vesicles were added to a petri dish containing VEGF and kidney blood vessel cells, the vesicles reduced the VEGF activity and protected the cells from damage. But when vesicles from stem cells lacking the VEGF receptors were used, that protection was lost. First author Sargis Sedrakyan, PhD summed up the results in a press release:

“We have demonstrated that these vesicles can be used to regulate VEGF activity and prevent the [kidney] capillary damage. We can efficiently use the vesicles to help restore normal kidney function by curbing the progression of endothelial damage in the filtration unit of the kidney.”

Back in 2013, first author Sargis Sedrakyan summarized his research in this 30 second video for the CIRM Grantee Elevator Pitch Challenge. 

Vesicles from aminotic fluid stem cells beat out FDA-approved VEGF blocker
Now anti-VEGF antibody proteins that can tightly bind and inhibit VEGF are readily available and have even been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for other disorders. So why even bother with these vesicles as a possible therapeutic strategy for Alport syndrome? Well, in side-by-side comparisons, it turns out the stem cell-derived vesicles, but not the anti-VEGF antibodies, could not only trap the VEGF but also put the brakes on VEGF production. So, it seems that the vesicles have additional properties that could make them more ideal than current approaches.

And as indicated in the press release, the CHLA team is eager to continue exploring this therapeutic strategy:

“The team’s next step will be to validate the stem cell-derived vesicle in different types of kidney disease with the final aim of finding a therapy that is effective for all patients who suffer from chronic kidney disease.”


Hey, what’s the big idea? CIRM Board is putting up more than $16.4 million to find out


David Higgins, CIRM Board member and Patient Advocate for Parkinson’s disease; Photo courtesy San Diego Union Tribune

When you have a life-changing, life-threatening disease, medical research never moves as quickly as you want to find a new treatment. Sometimes, as in the case of Parkinson’s disease, it doesn’t seem to move at all.

At our Board meeting last week David Higgins, our Board member and Patient Advocate for Parkinson’s disease, made that point as he championed one project that is taking a new approach to finding treatments for the condition. As he said in a news release:

“I’m a fourth generation Parkinson’s patient and I’m taking the same medicines that my grandmother took. They work but not for everyone and not for long. People with Parkinson’s need new treatment options and we need them now. That’s why this project is worth supporting. It has the potential to identify some promising candidates that might one day lead to new treatments.”

The project is from Zenobia Therapeutics. They were awarded $150,000 as part of our Discovery Inception program, which targets great new ideas that could have a big impact on the field of stem cell research but need some funding to help test those ideas and see if they work.

Zenobia’s idea is to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that have been turned into dopaminergic neurons – the kind of brain cell that is dysfunctional in Parkinson’s disease. These iPSCs will then be used to screen hundreds of different compounds to see if any hold potential as a therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Being able to test compounds against real human brain cells, as opposed to animal models, could increase the odds of finding something effective.

Discovering a new way

The Zenobia project was one of 14 programs approved for the Discovery Inception award. You can see the others on our news release. They cover a broad array of ideas targeting a wide range of diseases from generating human airway stem cells for new approaches to respiratory disease treatments, to developing a novel drug that targets cancer stem cells.

Dr. Maria Millan, CIRM’s President and CEO, said the Stem Cell Agency supports this kind of work because we never know where the next great idea is going to come from:

“This research is critically important in advancing our knowledge of stem cells and are the foundation for future therapeutic candidates and treatments. Exploring and testing new ideas increases the chances of finding treatments for patients with unmet medical needs. Without CIRM’s support many of these projects might never get off the ground. That’s why our ability to fund research, particularly at the earliest stage, is so important to the field as a whole.”

The CIRM Board also agreed to invest $13.4 million in three projects at the Translation stage. These are programs that have shown promise in early stage research and need funding to do the work to advance to the next level of development.

  • $5.56 million to Anthony Oro at Stanford to test a stem cell therapy to help people with a form of Epidermolysis bullosa, a painful, blistering skin disease that leaves patients with wounds that won’t heal.
  • $5.15 million to Dan Kaufman at UC San Diego to produce natural killer (NK) cells from embryonic stem cells and see if they can help people with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who are not responding to treatment.
  • $2.7 million to Catriona Jamieson at UC San Diego to test a novel therapeutic approach targeting cancer stem cells in AML. These cells are believed to be the cause of the high relapse rate in AML and other cancers.

At CIRM we are trying to create a pipeline of projects, ones that hold out the promise of one day being able to help patients in need. That’s why we fund research from the earliest Discovery level, through Translation and ultimately, we hope into clinical trials.

The writer Victor Hugo once said:

“There is one thing stronger than all the armies in the world, and that is an idea whose time has come.”

We are in the business of finding those ideas whose time has come, and then doing all we can to help them get there.




CIRM-Funded Clinical Trials Targeting the Heart, Pancreas, and Kidneys

This blog is part of our Month of CIRM series, which features our Agency’s progress towards achieving our mission to accelerate stem cell treatments to patients with unmet medical needs.

This week, we’re highlighting CIRM-funded clinical trials to address the growing interest in our rapidly expanding clinical portfolio. Today we are featuring trials in our organ systems portfolio, specifically focusing on diseases of the heart/vasculature system, the pancreas and the kidneys.

CIRM has funded a total of nine trials targeting these disease areas, and eight of these trials are currently active. Check out the infographic below for a list of our currently active trials.

For more details about all CIRM-funded clinical trials, visit our clinical trials page and read our clinical trials brochure which provides brief overviews of each trial.

CIRM Board Appoints Dr. Maria Millan as President and CEO

Dr. Maria Millan, President and CEO of CIRM, at the September Board meeting. (Todd Dubnicoff, CIRM)

Yesterday was a big day for CIRM. Our governing Board convened for its September ICOC meeting and appointed Dr. Maria Millan as our new President and CEO. Dr. Millan has been serving as the Interim President/CEO since July, replacing former President Dr. Randal Mills.

Dr. Millan has been at CIRM since 2012 and was instrumental in the development of CIRM’s infrastructure programs including the Alpha Stem Cell Clinics Network and the agency’s Strategic Plan, a five-year plan that lays out our agency’s goals through 2020. Previously, Dr. Millan was the Vice President of Therapeutics at CIRM, helping the agency fund 23 new clinical trials since the beginning of 2016.

The Board vote to appoint Dr. Millan as President and CEO was unanimous and enthusiastic. Chairman of the Board, Jonathan Thomas, shared the Board’s sentiments when he said,

“Dr. Millan is absolutely the right person for this position. Having seen Dr. Millan as the Interim CEO of CIRM for three months and how she has operated in that position, I am even more enthusiastic than I was before. I am grateful that we have someone of Maria’s caliber to lead our Agency.”

Dr. Millan has pursued a career devoted to helping patients. Before working at CIRM, she was an organ transplant surgeon and researcher and served as an Associate Professor of Surgery and Director of the Pediatric Organ Transplant Program at Stanford University. Dr. Millan was also the Vice President and Chief Medical Officer at StemCells, Inc.

In her permanent role as President, Dr. Millan is determined to keep CIRM on track to achieve the goals outlined in our strategic plan and to achieve its mission to accelerate treatments to patients with unmet needs. She commented in a CIRM press release,

“I joined the CIRM team because I wanted to make a difference in the lives of patients. They are the reason why CIRM exists and why we fund stem cell research. I am humbled and very honored to be CIRM’s President and look forward to further implementing our agency’s Strategic Plan in the coming years.”

The Board also voted to fund two new Alpha Stem Cell Clinics at UC Davis and UC San Francisco and five new clinical trials. Three of the clinical awards went to projects targeting cancer.

The City of Hope received $12.8 million to fund a Phase 1 trial targeting malignant gliomas (an aggressive brain cancer) using CAR-T cell therapy. Forty Seven Inc. received $5 million for a Phase 1b clinical trial treating acute myeloid leukemia. And Nohla Therapeutics received $6.9 million for a Phase 2 trial testing a hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell therapy to help patients suffering from neutropenia, a condition that leaves people susceptible to deadly infections, after receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

The other two trials target diabetes and end stage kidney failure. ViaCyte, Inc. was awarded $20 million to fund a Phase 1/2 clinical trial to test its PEC-Direct islet cell replacement therapy for high-risk type 1 diabetes. Humacyte Inc. received $14.1 million to fund a Phase 3 trial that is comparing the performance of its acellular bioengineered vessel with the current standard of dialysis treatment for kidney disease patients.

The Board also awarded $5.2 million to Stanford Medicine for a late stage preclinical project that will use CRISPR gene editing technology to correct the sickle cell disease mutation in blood-forming stem cells to treat patients with sickle cell disease. This award was particularly well timed as September is Sickle Cell Awareness month.

The Stanford team, led by Dr. Matthew Porteus, hopes to complete the final experiments required for them to file an Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the FDA so they can be approved to start a clinical trial hopefully sometime in 2018. You can read more about Dr. Porteus’ work here and you can read our past blogs featuring Sickle Cell Awareness here and here.

With the Board’s vote yesterday, CIRM’s clinical trial count rises to 40 funded trials since its inception. 23 of these trials were funded after the launch of our Strategic Plan bringing us close to the half way point of funding 50 new clinical trials by 2020. With more “shots-on-goal” CIRM hopes to increase the chances that one of these trials will lead to an FDA-approved therapy for patients.

Related Links:

Humacyte Receives Prestigious Technology Pioneer Award for Kidney Failure Treatment

This month, a CIRM-funded company called Humacyte was named one of the World Economic Forum’s 30 Technology Pioneers for 2017. This prestigious award “recognizes early-stage companies from around the world that are involved in the design, development and deployment of new technologies and innovations, and are poised to have a significant impact on business and society.”

Humacyte is a North Carolina-based company that’s developing a promising human-tissue based treatment for kidney failure. They’ve developed a technology to manufacture a bioengineered human vein that they hope will improve kidney function in patients with end stage kidney disease and patients on hemodialysis. We’ve blogged about their exciting technology previously on the Stem Cellar (here).

The technology is fascinating. The first step involves stimulating human smooth muscle cells from donor tissue to develop into tubular vessels. After the vessels are made, the cells are removed, leaving a 3D extracellular matrix structure composed of molecules secreted by the cells. This decellularized tube-like structure is called a human acellular vessels or HAV.

Human acellular vessel (HAV) from Humacyte.

The HAV is then implanted under a patient’s skin, where it recruits the patient’s own stem cells to migrate into the HAV and develop into vascular smooth muscle cells that line the insides of actual blood vessels. For patients with kidney failure, HAVs provide vascular access for hemodialysis, the process of collecting and filtering a patient’s blood through an artificial kidney and then returning “clean” blood back to the body. It would provide an alternative to the current procedures that insert a plastic tube called a shunt into the patient’s vein. Shunts can cause infection, blood clots, and can also be rejected by a patient’s immune system.

In July of 2016, CIRM awarded Humacyte almost $10 million to launch a Phase 3 trial in California to test their bioengineered blood vessels in patients with kidney failure. Since launching the trial, Humacyte received Regenerative Medicine Advanced Therapy or RMAT designation from the US Food and Drug Administration in March of this year. This designation is a sign that the FDA sees promise in Humacyte’s stem cell-based therapy and “will help facilitate the efficient development and expedited review of the HAV for vascular access to patients in need of life-sustaining hemodialysis.”

Humacyte’s technology has wide-ranging applications beyond treating kidney disease, including peripheral arterial disease, “repairing or replacing damaged arteries, coronary artery bypass surgery, and vascular trauma.” Other key benefits of this technology are that HAVs can be designed on demand and can be stored for later use without fear of a rapidly degrading shelf-life.

In a recent Humacyte news release, Carrie Cox, Chair and CEO of Humacyte, commented on her company’s purpose and vision to help patients.

“Keeping patient care at its core, Humacyte’s scientific discoveries are designed to create ‘off-the-shelf,’ or ready to use, bioengineered blood vessels. Today these conduits are being investigated clinically for patients undergoing kidney dialysis who require vascular access and for patients with peripheral arterial disease. However, this technology may be extended into a range of vascular applications in the future, with the potential for better clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Our vision is to make a meaningful impact in healthcare by advancing innovation in regenerative medicine to produce life-sustaining improvements for patients with vascular disease.”

The potential impact that Humacyte’s technology could have for patients with unmet medical needs was compelling enough to earn the company a coveted spot in the World Economic Forum’s Technology Pioneer community. This recognition will likely foster new partnerships and collaborations to further advance Humacyte’s technology down the clinical pipeline. Fulvia Montresor, Head of Technology Pioneers at the World Economic Forum, concluded in a news release.

“We welcome Humacyte in this group of extraordinary pioneers. We hope that thanks to this selection, the World Economic Forum can facilitate greater collaboration with business leaders, governments, civil society and other relevant individuals to accelerate the development of technological solutions to the world’s greatest challenges.”

According to coverage by North Carolina Biotechnology Center, Humacyte and the other Technology Pioneers will be honored at the “Summer Davos” World Economic Forum Annual Meeting of the New Champions later this month in China. You can learn more about this meeting here.

Related Links:

Kidney Disease: There’s an Organ-on-a-Chip for That

“There’s an app for that” is a well-known phrase trademarked by Apple to promote how users can do almost anything they do on a computer on their mobile phone. Apps are so deeply ingrained in everyday life that it’s hard for some people to imagine living without them. (I know I’d be lost without google maps or my Next Bus app!)

An estimated 2.2 million mobile apps exist for iPhones. Imagine if this multitude of apps were instead the number of stem cell models available for scientists to study human biology and disease. Scientists dream of the day when they can respond to questions about any disease and say, “there’s a model for that.” However, a future where every individual or disease has its own personalized stem cell line is still far away.

In the meantime, scientists are continuing to generate stem cell-based technologies that answer important questions about how our tissues and organs function and what happens when they are affected by disease. One strategy involves growing human stem cells on microchips and developing them into miniature organ systems that function like the organs in our bodies.


A group of scientists from Harvard’s Wyss Institute are using organ-on-a-chip technology to model a structure in the human kidney, called a glomerulus, that’s essential for filtering the body’s blood. It’s made up of a meshwork of blood vessels called capillaries that remove waste, toxic products, and excess fluid from the blood by depositing them into the urine.

The glomerulus also contains cells called podocytes that wrap around the capillaries and leave thin slits for blood to filter through. Diseases that affect podocytes or the glomerulus structure can cause kidney failure early or later in life, which is why the Harvard team was so interested to model this structure using their microchip technology.

They developed a method to mature human pluripotent stem cells into podocytes by engineering an environment similar to that of a real kidney on a microchip. Using a combination of kidney-specific factors and extracellular matrix molecules, which form a supportive environment for cells within tissues and organs, the team generated mature podocytes from human stem cells in three weeks. Their study was published in Nature Biomedical Engineering and was led by Dr. Donald Ingber, Founding Director of the Wyss Institute.

3D rendering of the glomerulus-on-a-chip derived from human stem cells. (Wyss Institute at Harvard University)

First author, Samaira Musah, explained how their glomerulus-on-a-chip works in a news release,

“Our method not only uses soluble factors that guide kidney development in the embryo, but, by growing and differentiating stem cells on extracellular matrix components that are also contained in the membrane separating the glomerular blood and urinary systems, we more closely mimic the natural environment in which podocytes are induced and mature. We even succeeded in inducing much of this differentiation process within a channel of the microfluidic chip, where by applying cyclical motions that mimic the rhythmic deformations living glomeruli experience due to pressure pulses generated by each heartbeat, we achieve even greater maturation efficiencies.”

Over 90% of stem cells successfully developed into functional podocytes that could properly filter blood by selectively filtering different blood proteins. The podocytes also were susceptible to a chemotherapy drug called doxorubicin, proving that they are suitable for modeling the effects of drug toxicity on kidneys.

Kidney podocyte derived from human stem cells. (Wyss Institute)

Ingber highlighted the potential applications of their glomerulus-on-a-chip technology,

Donald Ingber, Wyss Institute

“The development of a functional human kidney glomerulus chip opens up an entire new experimental path to investigate kidney biology, carry out highly personalized modeling of kidney diseases and drug toxicities, and the stem cell-derived kidney podocytes we developed could even offer a new injectable cell therapy approach for regenerative medicine in patients with life-threatening glomerulopathies in the future.”

There’s an organ-on-a-chip for that!

The Wyss Institute team has developed other organ-on-chips including lungs, intestine, skin and bone marrow. These miniature human systems are powerful tools that scientists hope will “revolutionize drug development, disease modeling and personalized medicine” by reducing the cost of research and the reliance on animal models according to the Wyss Institute technology website.

What started out as a microengineering experiment in Ingber’s lab a few years ago is now transforming into a technology “that is now poised to have a major impact on society” Ingber further explained. If organs-on-chips live up to these expectations, you might one day hear a scientist say, “Don’t worry, there’s an organ-on-a-chip for that!”

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