Magnetized stem cells used to treat lung disease in mice

Magnetic targeting technique has emerged as a new strategy to aid delivery, increase retention, and enhance the effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) but, so far, has not been performed in lung diseases. With the aid of magnets, magnetized MSCs remained longer in the lungs, and this was associated with increased beneficial effects for the treatment of silicosis in mice. Image Credit: AlphaMed Press

Certain jobs, such as construction work and sand blasting, are quite labor intensive but can also lead to some unexpected health complications down the road. One of these is called silicosis, a serious lung disease that affects millions of workers worldwide. It is the result of years of breathing in silica, a type of dust particle most commonly found in sand. The particles can cause inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue, which can lead to trouble breathing and death in the most severe cases. There is currently no cure for this condition and once the damage is done it cannot be reversed.

However, Dr. Patricia Rocco and Dr. Fernanda Cruz from the Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil have found a promising approach to treat silicosis that involves the use of stem cells and magnetization.

In this study, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a type of stem cell that has anti-inflammatory properties, were magnetized using specialized nanoparticles. The effects of the newly magnetized MSCs were then studied in mice in which silicosis was induced to see if magnetization could aid in delivery to the lungs. One group of mice was injected with saline (as a control study) while another group was injected with the magnetized MSCs. A third group of mice was injected with magnetized MSCs with a pair of magnets attached to their chest for 2 days. The results showed that using the magnetized MSCs alongside the magnets proved to be most effective in migrating the cells towards the lungs.

In a news release, Dr. Cruz elaborated on their findings for this portion of the study.

“Upon removal of the magnets, we examined all the animals in all the groups and found that those implanted with magnets had a significantly larger amount of magnetized MSCs in their lungs.”

For the next portion of the study, the team compared treatments in mice using magnetized MSCs with magnets vs non-magnetized MSCs. After 7 days, the magnets were removed from the mice with magnetized MSCs and their lungs were evaluated. It was found that those treated with magnetized MSCs and magnets showed significant signs of lung improvement while the other mice did not.

In the same news release, Dr. Rocco discusses the implications that these results have in terms of developing a potential treatment.

“This tells us that magnetic targeting may be a promising strategy for enhancing the beneficial effects of MSC-based cell therapies for silicosis and other chronic lung diseases.”

The full results of this study were published in Stem Cells Translational Medicine (SCTM).

CIRM has recently funded a clinical trial that uses MSCs to treat patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a life-threatening lung injury that occurs when fluid leaks into the lungs, in both COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative patients.

You can bank on CIRM

Way back in 2013, the CIRM Board invested $32 million in a project to create an iPSC Bank. The goal was simple;  to collect tissue samples from people who have different diseases, turn those samples into high quality stem cell lines – the kind known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) – and create a facility where those lines can be stored and distributed to researchers who need them.

Fast forward almost seven years and that idea has now become the largest public iPSC bank in the world. The story of how that happened is the subject of a great article (by CIRM’s Dr. Stephen Lin) in the journal Science Direct.

Dr. Stephen Lin

In 2013 there was a real need for the bank. Scientists around the world were doing important research but many were creating the cells they used for that research in different ways. That made it hard to compare one study to another and come up with any kind of consistent finding. The iPSC Bank was designed to change that by creating one source for high quality cells, collected, processed and stored under a single, consistent method.

Tissue samples – either blood or skin – were collected from thousands of individuals around California. Each donor underwent a thorough consent process – including being shown a detailed brochure – to explain what iPS cells are and how the research would be done.

The diseases to be studied through this bank include:

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
  • Cardiomyopathies (heart conditions)
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Epilepsy
  • Fatty Liver diseases
  • Hepatitis C (HCV)
  • Intellectual Disabilities
  • Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis

The samples were screened to make sure they were safe – for example the blood was tested for HBV and HIV – and then underwent rigorous quality control testing to make sure they met the highest standards.

Once approved the samples were then turned into iPSCs at a special facility at the Buck Institute in Novato and those lines were then made available to researchers around the world, both for-profit and non-profit entities.

Scientists are now able to use these cells for a wide variety of uses including disease modeling, drug discovery, drug development, and transplant studies in animal research models. It gives them a greater ability to study how a disease develops and progresses and to help discover and test new drugs or other therapies

The Bank, which is now run by FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics, has become a powerful resource for studying genetic variation between individuals, helping scientists understand how disease and treatment vary in a diverse population. Both CIRM and Fuji Film are committed to making even more improvements and additions to the collection in the future to ensure this is a vital resource for researchers for years to come.

How quitting smoking helps your lungs regenerate; a discovery could lead to new ways to repair damaged lungs; and encouraging news in a stroke recovery trial

Photo courtesy Lindsay Fox

Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death not just in the US, but worldwide. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tobacco causes an estimated seven million deaths around the world, every single year. And for every person who dies, another 30 live with a serious smoking-related illness. Clearly quitting is a good idea. Now a new study adds even more incentive to do just that.

Scientists at the Welcome Trust Sanger Institute and University College London in the UK, found that quitting smoking did more than just stop further damage to the lungs. They found that cells in the lining of the lungs that were able to avoid being damaged, were able to regrow and repopulate the lung, helping repair damaged areas.

In an article in Science Daily Dr Peter Campbell, a joint senior author of the study, said: “People who have smoked heavily for 30, 40 or more years often say to me that it’s too late to stop smoking — the damage is already done. What is so exciting about our study is that it shows that it’s never too late to quit — some of the people in our study had smoked more than 15,000 packs of cigarettes over their life, but within a few years of quitting many of the cells lining their airways showed no evidence of damage from tobacco.”

The study is published in the journal Nature.

Researchers at UCLA have also made a discovery that could help people with lung disease.

They examined the lungs of people with cancer and compared them to the lungs of healthy people. They were able to identify a group of molecules, called the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, that appear to influence the activity of stem cells that are key to maintaining healthy lungs. Too much activity can tilt the balance away from healthy lungs to ones with mutations that are more prone to developing tumors.

In a news release Dr. Brigitte Gomperts, the lead author of the study, says although this work has only been done in mice so far it has tremendous potential: “We think this could help us develop a new therapy that promotes airway health. This could not only inform the treatment of lung cancer, but help prevent its progression in the first place.”

The study is published in the journal Cell Reports.

CIRM has funded some of Dr. Gomperts earlier work in this area.

And there’s encouraging news for people trying to recover from a stroke. Results from ReNeuron’s Phase 2 clinical trial show the therapy appears to help people who have experienced some level of disability following a stroke.

ReNeuron says its CTX therapy – made from neural stem cells – was given to 23 people who had moderate to severe disability resulting from an ischemic stroke. The patients were, on average, seven months post stroke.

In the study, published in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, researchers used the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), a measure of disability and dependence to assess the impact of the therapy. The biggest improvements were seen in a group of 14 patients who had limited movement of one arm.

  • 38.5% experienced at least a one-point improvement on mRS six months after being treated.
  • 50% experienced a one-point improvement 12 months after being treated.

If that doesn’t seem like a big improvement, then consider this. Moving from an mRS 3 to 2 means that a person with a stroke regains their ability to live independently.

The therapy is now being tested in a larger patient group in the PISCES III clinical trial.

Rave reviews for new Killer-T Cell study

Anytime you read a news headline that claims a new discovery “may treat all cancer” it’s time to put your skeptic’s hat on. After all, there have been so many over-hyped “discoveries” over the years that later flopped, that it would be natural to question the headline writer. And yet, this time, maybe, this one has some substance behind it.

Andrew Sewell with research fellow Garry Dolton. (Photo Credit: Cardiff University)

Researchers at the University of Cardiff in Wales have discovered a new kind of immune cell, a so-called “killer T-cell”, that appears to be able to target and kill many human cancer cells, such as those found in breast, prostate and lung cancer. At least in the lab.

The immune system is our body’s defense against all sorts of threats, from colds and flu to cancer. But many cancers are able to trick the immune system and evade detection as they spread throughout the body. The researchers found one T-cell receptor (TCR) that appears to be able to identify cancer cells and target them, but leave healthy tissues alone.

In an interview with the BBC, Prof. Andrew Sewell, the lead researcher on the study said: “There’s a chance here to treat every patient. Previously nobody believed this could be possible. It raises the prospect of a ‘one-size-fits-all’ cancer treatment, a single type of T-cell that could be capable of destroying many different types of cancers across the population.”

The study, published in the journal Nature Immunology, suggests the TCR works by using a molecule called MR1 to identify cancerous cells. MR1 is found on every cell in our body but in cancerous cells it appears to give off a different signal, which enables the TCR to identify it as a threat.

When the researchers injected this TCR into mice that had cancer it was able to clear away many of the cells. The researchers admit there is still a long way to go before they know if this approach will work in people, but Sewell says they are encouraged by their early results.

“There are plenty of hurdles to overcome. However, if this testing is successful, then I would hope this new treatment could be in use in patients in a few years’ time.”

CIRM is funding a number of clinical trials that use a similar approach to targeting cancers, taking the patient’s own immune T-cells and, in the lab, “re-educating” to be able to recognize the cancerous cells. Those cells are then returned to the patient where it’s hoped they’ll identify and destroy the cancer. You can read about those here , here, here, here, and here.

Transplanted stem cells used to grow fully functional lungs in mice

Illustration of a human lung

According to organ donation statistics from the Health Resources & Services Administration, over 113,000 men, women, and children are on the national transplant waiting list as of July 2019. Another person is added to the waiting list every 10 minutes and 20 people die each day waiting for a transplant.

As these statistics highlight, there is a tremendous need for obtaining viable organs for people that are in need of a transplant. It is because of this, that scientists and researchers are exploring ways of using stem cells to potentially grow fully functional organs.

Dr. Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Stanford University

In a CIRM-supported study, Dr. Hiromitsu Nakauchi at Stanford University, in collaboration with Dr. Wellington Cardoso at Columbia University, were able to grow fully functional lungs in mouse embryos using transplanted stem cells. The full study, published in Nature Medicine, suggests that it may be possible to grow human lungs in animals and use them for patients in dire need of transplants or to study new lung treatments.

In the study, the researchers took stem cells and implanted them into modified mouse embryos that either lacked the stem cells necessary to form a lung or were not able to produce enough cells to make a lung. It was found that the implanted stem cells formed fully functional lungs that allowed the mice to live well into adulthood. Additionally, there were no signs of the mouse’s body rejecting the lung tissue composed of donor stem cells.

In a press release, Dr. Cardoso expressed optimism for the study and the potential the results hold:

“Millions of people worldwide who suffer from incurable lung diseases die without treatment due to the limited supply of donor lungs for transplantation. Our study shows that it may eventually be possible to develop new strategies for generating human lungs in animals for transplantation as an alternative to waiting for donor lungs.”

CIRM invests in stem cell clinical trial targeting lung cancer and promising research into osteoporosis and incontinence

Lung cancer

Lung cancer: Photo courtesy Verywell

The five-year survival rate for people diagnosed with the most advanced stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is pretty grim, only between one and 10 percent. To address this devastating condition, the Board of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) today voted to invest almost $12 million in a team from UCLA that is pioneering a combination therapy for NSCLC.

The team is using the patient’s own immune system where their dendritic cells – key cells in our immune system – are genetically modified to boost their ability to stimulate their native T cells – a type of white blood cell – to destroy cancer cells.  The investigators will combine this cell therapy with the FDA-approved therapy pembrolizumab (better known as Keytruda) a therapeutic that renders cancer cells more susceptible to clearance by the immune system.

“Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death for men and women, leading to 150,000 deaths each year and there is clearly a need for new and more effective treatments,” says Maria T. Millan, M.D., the President and CEO of CIRM. “We are pleased to support this program that is exploring a combination immunotherapy with gene modified cell and antibody for one of the most extreme forms of lung cancer.”

Translation Awards

The CIRM Board also approved investing $14.15 million in four projects under its Translation Research Program. The goal of these awards is to support promising stem cell research and help it move out of the laboratory and into clinical trials in people.

Researchers at Stanford were awarded almost $6 million to help develop a treatment for urinary incontinence (UI). Despite being one of the most common indications for surgery in women, one third of elderly women continue to suffer from debilitating urinary incontinence because they are not candidates for surgery or because surgery fails to address their condition.

The Stanford team is developing an approach using the patient’s own cells to create smooth muscle cells that can replace those lost in UI. If this approach is successful, it provides a proof of concept for replacement of smooth muscle cells that could potentially address other conditions in the urinary tract and in the digestive tract.

Max BioPharma Inc. was awarded almost $1.7 million to test a therapy that targets stem cells in the skeleton, creating new bone forming cells and blocking the destruction of bone cells caused by osteoporosis.

In its application the company stressed the benefit this could have for California’s diverse population stating: “Our program has the potential to have a significant positive impact on the lives of patients with osteoporosis, especially in California where its unique demographics make it particularly vulnerable. Latinos are 31% more likely to have osteoporosis than Caucasians, and California has the largest Latino population in the US, accounting for 39% of its population.”

Application Title Institution CIRM funding
TRAN1-10958 Autologous iPSC-derived smooth muscle cell therapy for treatment of urinary incontinence

 

 

Stanford University

 

$5,977,155

 

TRAN2-10990 Development of a noninvasive prenatal test for beta-hemoglobinopathies for earlier stem cell therapeutic interventions

 

 

Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute

 

$1,721,606

 

TRAN1-10937 Therapeutic development of an oxysterol with bone anabolic and anti-resorptive properties for intervention in osteoporosis  

MAX BioPharma Inc.

 

$1,689,855

 

TRAN1-10995 Morphological and functional integration of stem cell derived retina organoid sheets into degenerating retina models

 

 

UC Irvine

 

$4,769,039

 

Stem Cell Roundup: Backup cells to repair damaged lungs; your unique bowels; and California Cures, 71 ways CIRM is changing the face of medicine

It’s good to have a backup plan

3D illustration of Lungs, medical concept.

Our lungs are amazing things. They take in the air we breathe and move it into our blood so that oxygen can be carried to every part of our body. They’re also surprisingly large. If you were to spread out a lung – and I have no idea why you would want to do that – it would be almost as large as a tennis court.

But lungs are also quite vulnerable organs, relying on a thin layer of epithelial cells to protect them from harmful materials in the air. If those materials damage the lungs our body calls in local stem cells to repair the injury.

Now researchers at the University of Iowa have identified a new group of stem cells, called glandular myoepithelial cells (MECs), that also appear to play an important role in repairing injuries in the lungs.

These MECs seem to be a kind of “reserve” stem cell, waiting around until they are needed and then able to spring into action and develop into new replacement cells in the lungs.

In a news release study author Preston Anderson, said these cells could help develop new approaches to lung regeneration:

“We demonstrated that MECs can self-renew and differentiate into seven distinct cell types in the airway. No other cell type in the lung has been identified with this much stem cell plasticity.”

The study is published in Cell Stem Cell.

Your bowels are unique

About_Bowel_Cancer_What-is-Bowel-Cancer_370newfinal

Not to worry, that’s a plastic model of  a bowel

If you are eating as you read this, you should either put your food down or skip this item for now. A new study on bowel cancer says that every tumor is unique and every cell within that tumor is also genetically unique.

Researchers in the UK and Netherlands took samples of normal bowel tissue and cancerous bowel tissue from three people with colorectal cancer. They then grew these in the labs and turned them into mini 3D organoids, so they could study them in greater detail.

In the study, published in the journal Nature, the researchers say they found that tumor cells, not surprisingly, had many more mutations than normal cells, and that not only was each bowel cancer genetically different from each other, but that each cell they studied within that cancer was also different.

In a news release, Prof Sir Mike Stratton, joint corresponding author on the paper from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said:

“This study gives us fundamental knowledge on the way cancers arise. By studying the patterns of mutations from individual healthy and tumour cells, we can learn what mutational processes have occurred, and then look to see what has caused them. Extending our knowledge on the origin of these processes could help us discover new risk factors to reduce the incidence of cancer and could also put us in a better position to create drugs to target cancer-specific mutational processes directly.”

California Cures: a great title for a great book about CIRM

reed, thomas cirm photo (2)

CIRM Board Chair Jonathan Thomas (L) and Don Reed

One of the first people I met when I started working at CIRM was Don Reed. He impressed me then with his indefatigable enthusiasm, energy and positive outlook on life. Six years later he is still impressing me.

Don has just completed his second book on stem cell research charting the work of CIRM. It’s called “California Cures: How the California Stem Cell Research Program is Fighting Your Incurable Disease”. It’s a terrific read combining stories about stem cell research with true tales about Al Jolson, Enrico Caruso and how a dolphin named Ernestine burst Don’s ear drum.

On his website, Stem Cell Battles, Don describes CIRM as a “scrappy little stage agency” – I love that – and says:

“No one can predict the pace of science, nor say when cures will come; but California is bringing the fight. Above all, “California Cures” is a call for action. Washington may argue about the expense of health care (and who will get it), but California works to bring down the mountain of medical debt: stem cell therapies to ease suffering and save lives. We have the momentum. We dare not stop short. Chronic disease threatens everyone — we are fighting for your family, and mine!”

 

East Coast Company to Sell Research Products Derived from CIRM’s Stem Cell Bank

With patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in hand, any lab scientist can follow recipes that convert these embryonic-like stem cells into specific cell types for studying human disease in a petri dish. iPSCs derived from a small skin sample from a Alzheimer’s patient, for instance, can be specialized into neurons – the kind of cell affected by the disease – to examine what goes wrong in an Alzheimer’s patient’s brain or screen drugs that may alleviate the problems.

exilirneurons

Neurons created from Alzheimer’s disease patient-derived iPSCs.
Image courtesy Elixirgen Scientific

But not every researcher has easy access to a bank of patient-derived iPSCs and it’s not trivial to coax iPSCs to become a particular cell type. The process is also a time sink and many scientists would rather spend that time doing what they’re good at: uncovering new insights into their disease of interest.

Since the discovery of iPSC technology over a decade ago, countless labs have worked out increasingly efficient variations on the original method. In fact, companies that deliver iPSC-derived products have emerged as an attractive option for the time-strapped stem cell researcher.

One of those companies is Elixirgen Scientific of Baltimore, Maryland. Pardon the pun but Elixirgen has turned the process of making various cell types from iPSCs into a science. Here’s how CEO Bumpei Noda described the company’s value to me:

Bumpei-Noda-200

Bumpei Noda

“Our technology directly changes stem cells into the cells that make up most of your body, such as muscle cells or neural cells, in about one week. Considering that existing technology takes multiple weeks or even months to do the same thing, imagine how much more research can get done than before.”

quick-tissue-explanation--768x768

With Elixirgen’s technology, different “cocktails” of ingredients can quickly and efficiently turn iPSCs into many different human cell types. Image courtesy Elixirgen Scientific

Their technology is set to become an even greater resource for researchers based on their announcement yesterday that they’ve signed a licensing agreement to sell human disease cells that were generated from CIRM’s iPSC Repository.

stephen

Stephen Lin

“The CIRM Repository holds the largest publicly accessible collection of human iPSCs in the world and is the result of years of coordinated efforts of many groups to create a leading resource for disease modeling and drug discovery using stem cells,” said Stephen Lin, a CIRM Senior Science Officer who oversees the cell bank.

 

The repository currently contains a collection of 1,600 cell lines derived from patients with diseases that are a source of active research, including autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, lung disease, hepatitis C, fatty liver disease, and more (visit our iPSC Repository web page for the complete list).

While this wide variety of patient cells lines certainly played a major role in Elixirgen’s efforts to sign the agreement, Noda also noted that the CIRM Repository “has rich clinical and demographic data and age-matched control cell lines” which is key information to have when interpreting the results of experiments and drug screening.

Lin also points out another advantage to the CIRM cells:

“It’s one of the few collections with a streamlined route to commercialization (i.e. pre-negotiated licenses) that make activities like Elixirgen’s possible. iPSC technology is still under patent and technically cannot be used for drug discovery without those legal safeguards. That’s important because if you do discover a drug using iPSCs without taking care of these licensing agreements, your discovery could be owned by that original intellectual property holder.”

At CIRM, we’re laser-focused on accelerating stem cell treatments to patients with unmet medical needs. That’s why we’re excited that Elixirgen Scientific has licensed access to the our iPSC repository. We’re confident their service will help researchers work more efficiently and, in turn, accelerate the pace of new discoveries.

Bioengineers make breathtaking step toward building a lung

Tissue engineers have made amazing progress when it comes to using stem cells to build tissues such as blood vessels, which have relatively simple tubular shape. In fact, a late stage CIRM-funded clinical trial run by Humacyte is testing an engineered vein to improve dialysis treatment for people with kidney disease. Building a lung that works properly, on the other hand, has proven elusive due in no small part to its extremely intricate structure. But in a Science Advances report published yesterday, Columbia University bioengineers describe a potentially breakthrough method for building a functional lung in the lab.

Building a better lung that removes and repopulates lung cells without hurting blood vessels. Figure courtesy of N. Valerio Dorrello and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Columbia University.

Lung disease tends to not get as much attention as other deadly diseases like cancer and heart failure. Yet it’s the world’s third leading cause of death with 400,000 deaths per year in just the United States. The only true treatment is a very drastic one: a lung transplant. This option is not very attractive even to those with severe disease because it’s a very expensive procedure that only has a 10-20% survival rate after 10 years. On top of that, donor lungs are in very short supply. So, clinicians and their patients are in desperate need for other approaches.

Tissue engineering approaches to building a lung face many challenges due to the organ’s complex structure. How complex, you ask? Science writer and scientist, Shelly Fan, uses a great analogy to describe it in her Singularity Hub article about this study:

“The lung is a real jungle: at the microscopic level, the tree-like airways contain alveoli, tiny bubble-like structures where the lungs exchange gas with our blood. Both arteries and veins enwrap the alveoli like two sets of mesh pockets.”

Now, one approach to building an organ is to start from scratch by manufacturing a synthetic scaffold resembling the shape of the organ and then seeding it with stem cells or other precursor cells. But because of this complicated microscopic jungle, bioengineers have steered clear of this path. Instead, the Columbia team has generated a natural scaffold by removing the cells from rat lungs using detergents. What’s left behind is a lung “skeleton” of proteins and molecules called the extracellular matrix that’s devoid of cells.

Building a better lung that removes and repopulates lung cells without hurting blood vessels. Figure courtesy of N. Valerio Dorrello and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Columbia University.

In previous experiments using rat lungs, the team stripped out the lung cells, called epithelial cells, which are the type typically damaged in lung disease. Their method also removed the blood vessel cells, called endothelial cells, which make up the vascular system that is key to taking up the oxygen inhaled into the lungs. While repopulating the functional epithelial cells has been achieved, restoring the blood vessels is another story as mentioned in a university press release:

“An intact vascular network—missing in these scaffolds—is critical not only for maintaining the blood-gas barrier and allowing for proper graft function, but also for supporting the cells introduced to regenerate the lung. This has proved to be a daunting challenge.”

So, the current study attempted to only clear out the lung epithelial cells without disturbing the blood vessels to see if they would have better results. This approach makes sense on another level when envisioning future clinical applications: the therapy would be less complex if you only had to remove the diseased cells, which typically are the lung epithelial cells.

The researchers devised a cell removal method that was specific to the airways so that only epithelial cells would be cleared away. A battery of tests showed that, that although the lungs lost much of their ability to inflate and expand, the blood system remained intact after the procedure. The team then introduced either human epithelial cells or human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived epithelial cells into the scaffold. Within a day, they watched as the cells began to repopulate the lung in the correct areas. Follow-up experiments showed that the addition of new epithelial cells restored a good portion of the lungs expansion abilities.

Lead author, Dr. N. Valerio Dorrello, gave a big picture perspective on how this proof-of-concept study could one day help those who suffer from lung disease:

Nicolino Valerio Dorrello, MD

“Every day, I see children in intensive care with severe lung disease who depend on mechanical ventilation support. The approach we established could lead to entirely new treatment modalities for these patients, designed to regenerate lungs by treating their injured epithelium.”

Stem cell stories that caught our eye: new baldness treatments?, novel lung stem cells, and giraffe stem cells

Novel immune system/stem cell interaction may lead to better treatments for baldness. When one thinks of the immune system it’s usually in terms of the body’s ability to fight off a bad cold or flu virus. But a team of UCSF researchers this week report in Cell that a particular cell of the immune system is key to instructing stem cells to maintain hair growth. Their results suggest that the loss of these immune cells, called regulatory T cells (Tregs for short), may be the cause of baldness seen in alopecia areata, a common autoimmune disorder and may even play a role in male pattern baldness.

Alopecia, a common autoimmune disorder that causes baldness. Image: Shutterstock

While most cells of the immune system recognize and kill foreign or dysfunctional cells in our bodies, Tregs act to subdue those cells to avoid collateral damage to perfectly healthy cells. If Tregs become impaired, it can lead to autoimmune disorders in which the body attacks itself.

The UCSF team had previously shown that Tregs allow microorganisms that are beneficial to skin health in mice to avoid the grasp of the immune system. In follow up studies they intended to examine what happens to skin health when Treg cells were inhibited in the skin of the mice. The procedure required shaving away small patches of hair to allow observation of the skin. Over the course of the experiment, the scientists notice something very curious. Team lead Dr. Michael Rosenblum recalled what they saw in a UCSF press release:

“We quickly noticed that the shaved patches of hair never grew back, and we thought, ‘Hmm, now that’s interesting. We realized we had to delve into this further.”

That delving showed that Tregs are located next to hair follicle stem cells. And during the hair growth, the Tregs grow in number and surround the stem cells. Further examination, found that Tregs trigger the stem cells through direct cell to cell interactions. These mechanisms are different than those used for their immune system-inhibiting function.

With these new insights, Dr. Rosenblum hopes this new-found role for Tregs in hair growth may lead to better treatments for Alopecia, one of the most common forms of autoimmune disease.

Novel lung stem cells bring new insights into poorly understood chronic lung disease. Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disease that’s characterized by scarring and changes in the structure of tiny blood vessels, or microvessels, within lungs. This so-called “remodeling” of lung tissue hampers the transfer of oxygen from the lung to the blood leading to dangerous symptoms like shortness of breath. Unfortunately, the cause of most cases of pulmonary fibrosis is not understood.

This week, Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers report in the Journal of Clinical Investigation the identification of a new type of lung stem cell that may play a role in lung remodeling.

Susan Majka and Christa Gaskill, and colleagues are studying certain lung stem cells that likely contribute to the pathobiology of chronic lung diseases.  Photo by: Susan Urmy

Up until now, the cells that make up the microvessels were thought to contribute to the detrimental changes to lung tissue in pulmonary fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases. But the Vanderbilt team wasn’t convinced since these microvessel cells were already fully matured and wouldn’t have the ability to carry out the lung remodeling functions.

They had previously isolated stem cells from both mouse and human lung tissue located near microvessels. In this study, they tracked these mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in normal and disease inducing scenarios. The team’s leader, Dr. Susan Majka, summarized the results of this part of the study in a press release:

“When these cells are abnormal, animals develop vasculopathy — a loss of structure in the microvessels and subsequently the lung. They lose the surfaces for gas exchange.”

The team went on to find differences in gene activity in MPCs from healthy versus diseased lungs. They hope to exploit these differences to identify molecules that would provide early warnings of the disease. Dr. Majka explains the importance of these “biomarkers”:

“With pulmonary vascular diseases, by the time a patient has symptoms, there’s already major damage to the microvasculature. Using new biomarkers to detect the disease before symptoms arise would allow for earlier treatment, which could be effective at decreasing progression or even reversing the disease process.”

The happy stem cell story of Mahali the giraffe. We leave you this week with a feel-good story about Mahali, a 14-year old giraffe at the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo in Colorado. Mahali had suffered from chronic arthritis in his front left leg. As a result, he could not move well and was kept isolated from his herd.

Giraffes at Cheyenne Mountain Zoo. Photo: Denver Post

The zoo’s head veterinarian, Dr. Liza Dadone, decided to try a stem cell therapy procedure to bring Mahali some relief and a better quality of life. It’s the first time such a treatment would be performed on a giraffe. With the help of doctors at Colorado State University’s James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 100 million stem cells grown from Mahali’s blood were injected into his arthritic leg.

Before treatment, thermograph shows inflammation (red/yellow) in Mahali’s left front foot (seen at far right of each image); after treatment inflammation resolved (blue/green). Photos: Cheyenne Mountain Zoo

In a written statement to the Colorado Gazette, Dr. Dadone summarized the positive outcome:

“Prior to the procedure, he was favoring his left front leg and would lift that foot off the ground almost once per minute. Since then, Mahali is no longer constantly lifting his left front leg off the ground and has resumed cooperating for hoof care. A few weeks ago, he returned to life with his herd, including yard access. On the thermogram, the marked inflammation up the leg has mostly resolved.”

Now, Dr. Dadone made sure to state that other treatments and medicine were given to Mahali in addition to the stem cell therapy. So, it’s not totally clear to what extent the stem cells contributed to Mahali’s recovery. Maybe future patients will receive stem cells alone to be sure. But for now, we’re just happy for Mahali’s new lease on life.