For some forms of cancer, there really is no way to truly eradicate it. Even the most advanced chemotherapy treatments leave behind some straggler cells that can fuel a relapse.
But now, scientists have devised a unique strategy, something they are calling a ‘one-two punch’ that can more effectively wipe out dangerous tumors, and lower the risk of them ever returning for a round two.
Reporting in the latest issue of the journal Nature Communications, bioengineers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) in Boston describe how treating breast cancer cells with a targeted drug immediately after chemotherapy was effective at killing the cancer cells and preventing a recurrence. According to lead scientist Shiladitya Sengupta, these findings were wholly unexpected:
“We were studying the fundamentals of how [drug] resistance develops and looking to understand what drives [cancer] relapse. What we found is a new paradigm for thinking about chemotherapy.”
In recent years, many scientists have suggested cancer stem cells are one of the biggest hurdles to curing cancer. Cancer stem cells are proposed to be a subpopulation of cancer cells that are resistant to chemotherapy. As a result, they can propagate the cancer after treatment, leading to a relapse.
In this work, Sengupta and his colleagues treated breast cancer cells with chemotherapy. And here is where things started getting interesting.
After chemotherapy, the breast cancer cells began to morph into cells that bore a close resemblance to cancer stem cells. For a brief period of time after treatment, these cells were neither fully cancer cells, nor fully stem cells. They were in transition.
The team then realized that because these cells were in transition, they may be more vulnerable to attack. Testing this hypothesis in mouse models of breast cancer, the team first zapped the tumors with chemotherapy. And, once the cells began to morph, they then blasted them with a different type of drug. The tumors never grew back, and the mice survived.
Interestingly, the team did not have similar success when they altered the timing of when they administered the therapy. Treating the mice with both types of drugs simultaneously didn’t have the same effect. Neither did increasing the time between treatments. In order to successfully treat the tumor they had a very slim window of opportunity.
“By treating with chemotherapy, we’re driving cells through a transition state and creating vulnerabilities,” said Aaron Goldman, the study’s first author. “This opens up the door: we can then try out different combinations and regimens to find the most effective way to kill the cells and inhibit tumor growth.”
In order to test these combinations, the researchers developed an ‘explant,’ a mini-tumor derived from a patient’s biopsy that can be grown in an environment that closely mimics its natural surroundings. The ultimate goal, says Goldman, is to map the precise order and timing of this treatment regimen in order to move toward clinical trials:
“Our goal is to build a regimen that will be [effective] for clinical trials. Once we’ve understood specific timing, sequence of drug delivery and dosage better, it will be easier to translate these findings clinically.”