Month of CIRM: Battling COVID-19

All this month we are using our blog and social media to highlight a new chapter in CIRM’s life, thanks to the people of California approving Proposition 14. We are looking back at what we have done since we were created in 2004, and also looking forward to the future.

Dr. John Zaia, City of Hope stem cell researcher

The news that effective vaccines have been developed to help fight COVID-19 was a truly bright spot at the end of a very dark year. But it will be months, in some countries years, before we have enough vaccines to protect everyone. That’s why it’s so important to keep pushing for more effective ways to help people who get infected with the virus.

One of those ways is in a clinical study that CIRM is funding with City of Hope’s Dr. John Zaia. Dr. Zaia and his team, in partnership with the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) in Flagstaff, Arizona, are using something called convalescent plasma to try and help people who have contracted the virus. Here’s the website they have created for the study.

Plasma is a part of our blood that carries proteins, called antibodies, that help defend our bodies against viral infections. When a patient recovers from COVID-19, their blood plasma contains antibodies against the virus. The hope is that those antibodies can now be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19 to help people who are newly infected. 

To carry out the study they are using clinical trial sites around California, including some of the CIRM Alpha Stem Cell Network clinics.

For the study to succeed they’ll first need people who have recovered from the virus to donate blood. That’s particularly appropriate in January because this is National Volunteer Blood Donor Month.

The team has three elements to their approach:

  • A rapid-response screening program to screen potential COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors, particularly in underserved communities.
  • A laboratory center that can analyze the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies properties in COVID-19 convalescent plasma.
  • An analysis of the clinical course of the disease in COVID-19 patients to identify whether antibody properties correlate with clinical benefit of COVID-19 convalescent plasma.

There’s reason to believe this approach might work. A study published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that blood plasma from people who have recovered from COVID-19 can help older adults and prevent them from getting seriously ill with the virus if they get the plasma within a few days of becoming infected.

We are used to thinking of blood donations as being used to help people after surgery or who have been in an accident. In this study the donations serve another purpose, but one that is no less important. The World Health Organization describes blood as “the most precious gift that anyone can give to another person — the gift of life. A decision to donate your blood can save a life, or even several if your blood is separated into its components — red cells, platelets and plasma.”

That plasma could help in developing more effective treatments against the virus. Because until we have enough vaccines for everyone, we are still going to need as much help as we can get in fighting COVID-19. The recent surge in cases throughout the US and Europe are a reminder that this virus is far from under control. We have already lost far too many people. So, if you have recently recovered from the virus, or know someone who has, consider donating blood to this study. It could prove to be a lifesaver.

For more information about the study and how you can be part of it, click here.

Want to help us solve a mystery?

Patient that has recovered from Covid-19 donating blood plasma. Photo courtesy Science Photo

Convalescent plasma has been in the news a lot lately as a potential treatment for people infected with the coronavirus. In August the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted emergency use authorization (EUA) to use these products based on preliminary data that suggested it might help people battling COVID. But there are still a lot of unanswered questions about this approach.

And that’s where you come in.

Plasma is a component of blood that carries proteins called antibodies that are usually involved in defending our bodies against viral infections.  We also know that blood plasma from patients that have recovered from COVID-19, referred to as convalescent plasma, contain antibodies against the virus that can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19. 

That’s the theory, but the reality is that there are still a lot we don’t know, basic questions such as does it really work, how does it work, does it work for everyone or just some patients? A clinical  grant includes testing the plasma in COVID-19 Positive patients that CIRM is funding with City of Hope, UC Irvine and Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) hopes to answer those questions. 

The first step is getting the plasma from people who have recovered from COVID and then testing it to make sure it’s safe and to identify what blood type it is, so you can match that blood type with the person receiving it.

But plasma doesn’t contain just one kind of antibody, there are many antibodies and each one works in a slightly different way. For example, two antibodies, IGM and IGG, target in on the spike protein on the coronavirus. The goal is to block that spike and prevent the virus from spreading throughout the body. IGM has up to 10 ‘arms’ and so has the potential to bind multiple copies of the spike, whereas IGG has only 2 arms, but lasts longer. Both IGM and IGG also come in many different flavors, allowing them to bind to many different parts of the spike, some being more protective than others.

That’s one of the things that this trial is trying to find out. And you can help them do that. The trial needs volunteers, volunteers to donate the plasma and volunteers to try the therapy.

The team is evaluating changes that occur before and after plasma treatment.  Many recipients have no immediate response, a few get dramatically better, and some continue to have symptoms long after discharge from the hospital.  These so-called “long-haulers” can have debilitating problems, months after becoming infected. The study hopes to evaluate these variable responses to plasma treatment.

But more people are needed if we are to truly understand what works best. We need people who are newly infected, those being treated with plasma, and those that have recovered from the virus.

We are particularly interested in recruiting people from the Black and Latinx communities, groups that are often underserved when it comes to access to medical care.

The team has created a website to make it easy to find out more about the clinical trial, and to see if you are a good candidate to be part of it, either as a donor or recipient.

Lives are at stake and time is short so join us, help us find answers to the most pressing medical issue of our times. It’s a chance to do something that might benefit your family, your friends and your community.