Stem cell stories that caught our eye: functioning liver tissue, making new bone, stem cells and mental health

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Functioning liver tissue. Scientists are looking to stem cells as a potential alternative treatment to liver transplantation for patients with end-stage liver disease. Efforts are still in their early stages but a study published this week in Stem Cells Translational Medicine, shows how a CIRM-funded team at the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) successfully generated partially functional liver tissue from mouse and human stem cells.

Biodegradable scaffold (left) and human tissue-engineered liver (right) (Photo courtesy of The Saban Research Institute at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles)

Biodegradable scaffold (left) and human tissue-engineered liver (right) (Photo courtesy of The Saban Research Institute at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles)

The lab had previously developed a protocol to make intestinal organoids from mouse and human stem cells. They were able to tweak the protocol to generate what they called liver organoid units and transplanted the tissue-engineered livers into mice. The transplants developed cells and structures found in normal healthy livers, but their organization was different – something that the authors said they would address in future experiments.

Impressively, when the tissue-engineered liver was transplanted into mice with liver failure, the transplants had some liver function and the liver cells in these transplants were able to grow and regenerate like in normal livers.

In a USC press release, Dr. Kasper Wang from CHLA and the Keck school of medicine at USC commented:

“A cellular therapy for liver disease would be a game-changer for many patients, particularly children with metabolic disorders. By demonstrating the ability to generate hepatocytes comparable to those in native liver, and to show that these cells are functional and proliferative, we’ve moved one step closer to that goal.”

 

Making new bone. Next up is a story about making new bone from stem cells. A group at UC San Diego published a study this week in the journal Science Advances detailing a new way to make bone forming cells called osteoblasts from human pluripotent stem cells.

Stem cell-derived osteoblasts (bone cells). Image credit Varghese lab/UCSD.

Stem cell-derived osteoblasts (bone cells). Image credit Varghese lab/UCSD.

One way that scientists can turn pluripotent stem cells into mature cells like bone is to culture the stem cells in a growth medium supplemented with small molecules that can influence the fate of the stem cells. The group discovered that by adding a single molecule called adenosine to the growth medium, the stem cells turned into osteoblasts that developed vascularized bone tissue.

When they transplanted the stem cell-derived osteoblasts into mice with bone defects, the transplanted cells developed new bone tissue and importantly didn’t develop tumors.

 In a UC newsroom release, senior author on the study and UC San Diego Bioengineering Professor Shyni Varghese concluded:

“It’s amazing that a single molecule can direct stem cell fate. We don’t need to use a cocktail of small molecules, growth factors or other supplements to create a population of bone cells from human pluripotent stem cells like induced pluripotent stem cells.”

 

Stem cells and mental health. Brad Fikes from the San Diego Union Tribune wrote a great article on a new academic-industry partnership whose goal is to use human stem cells to find new drugs for mental disorders. The project is funded by a $15.4 million grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.

Academic scientists, including Rusty Gage from the Salk Institute and Hongjun Song from Johns Hopkins University, are collaborating with pharmaceutical company Janssen and Cellular Dynamics International to develop induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with mental disorders like bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The scientists will generate brain cells from the iPSCs and then work with the companies to test for potential drugs that could be used to treat these disorders.

In the article, Fred Gage explained that the goal of this project will be used to help patients rather than generate data points:

Rusty Gage, Salk Institute.

Rusty Gage, Salk Institute.

“Gage said the stem cell project is focused on getting results that make a difference to patients, not simply piling up research information. Being able to replicate results is critical; Gage said. Recent studies have found that many research findings of potential therapies don’t hold up in clinical testing. This is not only frustrating to patients, but failed clinical trials are expensive, and must be paid for with successful drugs.”

“The future of this will require more patients, replication between labs, and standardization of the procedures used.”

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