Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.
Decoding heart health and genetics in Asians. A study from CIRM grantee Joseph Wu at Stanford may point the way to using stem cells to solve problems caused by too many drugs being tested predominantly on white males. Ethnic variations to drug response too often get ignored in current clinical trials.
The Stanford team has used iPS type stem cells to create a disease-in-a-dish model of a genetic mutation that effects 500 million people, but mostly East Asians. The mutation disables the metabolic protein called ALDH2 and results in increased risk of heart disease and increases the risk of death after a heart attack. By growing heart muscle from stem cells made from the skin of patients with the mutation his team found that the defect alters the way the heart cells react to stress.
Wu suggests that drug companies one day may keep banks of iPS cells from various ethnic groups to see how their responses to drugs differ. Science Daily ran the university’s press release.
Stem cells may treat gut disease in premies. A laundry list of medical challenges confronts premature babies, but few are as deadly as the intestinal disease that goes by the name NEC, or necrotizing enterocolitis. It strikes with no notice and can kill within hours.
A team at the University of Ohio reports they have developed what may be a two-pronged attack on the disease. First, they found a biomarker that can predict which infants might develop NEC, and second they have tested stem cells for treating the intestinal damage done by the disease. In an animal model they found that a type of stem cell found in bone marrow, mesenchymal stem cells, can reduce the inflammation that causes the damage and that neural stem cells can repair the nerve connections disrupted by the inflammation.
While this explanation sounds straight forward, getting to that potential intervention was anything but a simple path. The university wrote an extensive feature detailing the many years and many steps the research team took to unravel this who-done-it that involves the gut’s extensive “brain” and immune system. Science Daily picked up the piece.
We recently posted a video about a project we fund using stem cells to develop a treatment for irritable bowel disease.
Fat stem cells tested in incontinence. For far too many older women laughing and coughing can lead to embarrassing bladder leaks. Several groups are working with various types of stem cells to try to strengthen the urinary sphincter and help patients lead a more normal life. A team at Cleveland Clinic now reports some positive results using the most easily accessed form of stem cells, those in fat.
They harvested patients’ own fat stems cells, grew them in the lab for three weeks and then mixed them with a collagen gel from cows to hold them in place before injecting them into the sphincter. Three of five patients passed “the cough test” after one year. Good results, but clearly more work needs to be done to yield more uniform results. Stem Cells Translational Medicine published the research and issued this press release.
Some researcher suspect starting with an earlier stage, more versatile stem cell might yield better results. One of our grantees is developing cells to treat incontinence starting with reprogrammed iPS type stem cells.
New course looks at where fact and fiction overlap. I am a big fan of almost any effort to blend science and the arts. A professor at the University of Southern California seems to agree. CIRM grantee Gage Crump will be teaching a course next spring about science fiction and stem cells.
The university says the course, Stem Cells: Fact and Fiction, will range from babies born with three biological parents to regrown body parts. The course will explore the current state of stem cell biology as it closes the gap between reality and the sci fi visions of authors such as Margaret Atwood and Philip K. Dick. Crump describes it as:
“a mad scientist type of course, where we go through some real science but also [think] about what’s the future of science.”