Stem cell stories that caught our eye: Immune therapy for HIV, nerves grown on diamonds and how stem cells talk

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Trendy CAR T therapy tried on HIV.  The hottest trend in cancer therapy today is using CAR-T cells to attack and rid the body of cancer. Technically called chimeric antigen receptors the technology basically provides our own immune system with directions to cancer cells and keys to get inside them and destroy them. A CIRM-funded team at the University of California, Los Angeles, has now tried that same scheme with HIV.

Jerome Zack (left) and Scott Kitchen, found that the technique decreased HIV levels in mice by 80 to 95 percent.

Jerome Zack (left) and Scott Kitchen, found that the technique decreased HIV levels in mice by 80 to 95 percent.

The researchers worked with mice bred to have a human immune system so that HIV affects them similarly to humans. They harvested their blood-forming stem cells and inserted a CAR that recognized HIV. After giving the stem cells back to the mice they produced T cells capable of seeking out and destroying about 90 percent of the virus. The technique has a ways to go, but the study’s lead author noted their ultimate goal in a University press release picked up by HealthCanal:

“We hope this approach could one day allow HIV-positive individuals to reduce or even stop their current HIV drug regimen and clear the virus from the body altogether,” said Scott Kitchen. “We also think this approach could possibly be extended to other diseases.”

Nerves grown on diamonds. Diamonds are so chemically non-reactive our bodies would not recognize them as foreign. But they can also be made to conduct electricity, which could make nerves grown on their surface able to be turned on and off with electrical impulses. When developing cell therapy for several neurologic diseases the ability to control the activity of replacement cells could be critical to success—making new research by a team in Britain and Ireland intriguing, if very preliminary.

They doped diamonds with boron to make them able to conduct electricity and then used them as a surface for growing nerve stem cells that could later be turned into nerves. They then succeeded in growing nerves long term on the diamonds.

“We still have a lot more fundamental studies of the neuron/diamond interface to perform,” said Paul May of the University of Bristol. “[But] the long term possibilities for this work are exciting.  Long-lifetime diamond bio-implants may offer treatments for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, stroke or even epilepsy.”

Materials Today wrote a piece explaining the work.

Some stem cells talk over “land lines.” Most cellular communication works through chemical signals that get dispatched by one cell and received by others. It turns out that some types of stem cells communicate by sending out tiny nanotubes, sort of a cellular land line.

A team at the University of Michigan and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center found the new form of communication working with fruit flies. Yukiko Yamashita, a senior author of the paper from Michigan explained why it is so important to get a better understanding of cell-to-cell communication in a university press release picked up by ScienceNewsline:

“There are trillions of cells in the human body, but nowhere near that number of signaling pathways. There’s a lot we don’t know about how the right cells get just the right messages to the right recipients at the right time.”

In a classic example of the beauty of young minds in science, prior images of these stem cells had shown the nanotubes, but they had been overlooked until a graduate student asked what they were.

Phase 3 melanoma trial explained. When a new therapy gets into its third and final phase of testing it is make or break for the company developing the therapy and for patients who hope it will become broadly available. CIRM recently provided funding to our first phase three clinical trial, one aimed at metastatic melanoma being conducted by Caladrius Biosciences.

The CEO of the company, David Mazzo, gave an interview with The New Economy this week that does a nice job of explaining the goal of the therapy and how it is different from other therapies currently used or being developed. The therapy’s main difference is its ability to target the cancer-inducing cells thought to responsible for the spread of the disease.

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