Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.
Improving the efficiency of creating stem cell lines. Ever since researchers first learned to reprogram adult cells to behave like embryonic stem cells in 2007 teams have tried to do it better. The earliest reprogramming resulted in less than one percent of cells converting to the stem cell state. Many years and many reprogramming recipes later some teams have got that up to a few percent, but usually still in the single digits. CIRM-funded researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, have uncovered a path that could yield dramatic increases in efficiency in creating these stem cells. They stepped back to look at what genetic factors were acting as brakes on the reprogramming and have now mapped out multiple brake points that could be inhibited to improve the production of stem cells. HealthCanal ran the university’s press release based on the journal publication in Cell.
Does source of adult cells matter for iPS-type stem cells. When researchers turn adult tissue into embryonic-like iPS cells, they know that the reprogrammed stem cells retain some memory of the type of adult tissue they were, whether it was skin, brain or heart. So, a CIRM-funded team at Stanford set out to do a series of experiments to see if that mattered. They created iPS cells from heart tissue and from skin cells. And initially, there was a difference. The stem cells made from heart more readily matured into heart muscle than those from skin, but over time, as the cells grew in the lab the difference abated. Both types of cells began to function like normal heart muscle. Stanford’s Scope blog wrote about this and a companion paper that were published this week in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Viral heart failure link may be via stem cells. Our hearts are one of our poorest performing organs when it comes to repairing themselves. The liver does it well. The lining of our guts does it well—the heart not so much. Scientists generally attribute this to the very small number of stem cells we retain in our hearts. If you lose those few, you are in deep trouble. While there are many reasons for heart failure, we have known that a high percent of those who develop this weakening of the heart’s ability to pump blood have signs of having been infected with the coxsackie virus. Researchers at San Diego State University have found out a possible reason why. The virus appears to selectively seek out and destroy the heart stem cells and middlemen progenitor cells. HealthCanal ran the university’s press release based on work published this week in PLOS Pathogens.
Review talks about reality of stem cells in sports. Over the past year, there has been a parade of headlines about athletes getting their sports injuries treated with stem cells. The EuroStemCell collaborative has published online a great review of the reasons why stem cells might work for some of those conditions, and might not. The piece dutifully starts by noting that none of these treatments have been approved for general use because none have had sufficient testing. Taking muscle, cartilage, tendon and bone repair individually the authors discuss what research has been done and what it shows. In general, the results have not been great, in large part because we haven’t yet figured out what is the best type of cell for each injury and the best way to deliver it.
False claims in stem cell for plastic surgery. CIRM-grantee Michael Longaker at Stanford has called out his fellow plastic surgeons to lead the charge in evaluating the uses of stem cells in cosmetic procedures. In an article in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery he describes research he did into 50 clinics that showed up in a google search offering stem cell face lifts. While they were claiming to inject age-reversing stem cells, he suggests they were doing no more than the established practice of injecting fat to smooth out wrinkles. While fat does have a few stem cells in it, he could find no evidence that the clinics had the necessary equipment to isolate those cells, and even if they did, there is scant research into whether those stem cells could have any impact. Popular Science and ScienceNewsline both ran stories about the journal article this week.