A Stem Cell Summer with Taylor Swift, Jay-Z, and Carly Rae Jepsen (New Videos)

Was that a stem cell conference or a film festival?

It’s a question that may have been on some attendees’ minds last Friday at CIRM’s Creativity Day in San Mateo. The event showcased the accomplishments of about 70 high school students who did cutting-edge stem cell research as part of a CIRM-funded summer internship program at nine world-class institutions in California. The remarkable, young students gave graduate-level research presentations and showed off posters of their scientific findings to their lab mentors, the CIRM team, and proud family members.

While the main focus of the internship was lab research, we also included a social media assignment that asked students to capture their internship experiences by writing blogs, taking Instagram photos, or making movies. And just as the student poured their excitement, smarts, and hard work into their research, they also went all-in with the social media challenge.

I don’t know how they found the time, but eight videos were submitted in all – the most yet since the program started. And they’re fabulous! The CIRM team members who voted on the best videos were blown away by the inventiveness and artistry of the videos. Many students parodied popular songs by the likes of Taylor Swift, Jay-Z and Carly Rae Jepsen. They went above and beyond choreographing their own dance routines in the lab and injecting stem cell science into the lyrics. There was even a parody of the Jerry Seinfeld show called “Cirmfeld”.

The best social media submissions in each category were recognized at the Creativity Day (we blogged about the best blog yesterday). It was a very tough choice deciding on the best video, but in the end we choose one winner and two honorable mentions. In that moment just before the winner was announced, the students were holding their collective breaths and nervously sitting at the edge their seats. It really had the atmosphere of a film festival.

The winning video was a parody of Taylor Swift’s “Blank Space” by Vanessa Arreola & Camilia Kacimi who did their internships at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco. The duo shot, edited and scripted the video themselves. Their work is a great example of an effective way to communicate science to the public: start with a subject people know about, add creativity and humor, and teach some science along the way. Watch the video here:

The two honorable mentions also did fantastic jobs communicating science in an accessible way. The high school interns at City of Hope parodied Carly Rae Jepsen’s “I Really Like You” with their beautifully shot and edited video, “We’re Really Close (To a Breakthrough)”:

The students at Stanford also parodied Taylor Swift but in addition they threw down some fierce lyrics in their parody of a Jay-Z and Kayne West track. I do believe it’s the world’s first rap to include a reference to renown Stanford stem cell researcher, Irv Weissman:

You can watch all the videos on CIRMTV, the agency’s YouTube channel.

Congratulations and best of luck to all of the Creativity students. The future is bright for stem cell science!

Creativity sparks a bright future for science

When some people want to see the future they use a crystal ball. Others use tarot cards or runes. But when anyone at CIRM wants to see the future all we have to do is look into the faces of the students in our Creativity program.

Creativity students 2015 with program director Dr. Mani Vessal (front & center with tie)

Creativity students 2015 with program director Dr. Mani Vessal (front & center with tie)

Over the past three years the Creativity program has given some 220 California high school students a chance to spend the summer working in a world-class stem cell research facility. And when I say work, I mean work. They are required to attend lectures, grow their own stem cells, and do experiments. In short, they are expected to do what all the other scientists in the lab do. In return they get a great experience, and a modest stipend for their effort. At the end they produce papers on their work with titles like:

  • Notch Signaling as a Possible Regulator of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Differentiation in the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche
  • RNA Splicing Factor ZRSR2 in Human Erythroleukemia and Stem Cells

We also ask the students to either write a blog or create a video about their experiences over the summer. Many do both. We’ll come back to the video portion later this week. The blogs make for a great read because they chart the students as they progress from knowing little if anything about stem cells, to being quite proficient at working with them. And all in just 8 weeks. One of the hardest parts of our job is choosing the best blog. For example Alice Lin, part of the City of Hope program, got an honorable mention for her blog that was a “diary” written by an embryonic stem cell. Here’s a small sample of her approach:

‘Also, this is NOT YOUR TYPICAL LAB JOURNAL ENTRY. It’s an autobiography chronicling my life. That way, when the stem cell controversy cools down, the general public can get a FIRST HAND ACCOUNT of what we do. This blog is going to rack up some serious views someday. Until then, I’m attached to my colony and the plate.’

Ryan Hale, part of the Scripps team, wrote about how the experience taught him to think like a scientist:

‘One day, after performing an experiment, our mentor asked us the reason behind our experiment. He wasn’t asking us about the experimental procedure or quizzing us on the pre-reading packet, he wanted us to understand the thought process a researcher would go through to actually think up such an experiment… Our mentor stressed how important it is to be creative, inquisitive, and critical if one wants to become a successful researcher.’

Selena Zhang

Selena Zhang

The winner was Selena Zhang, also part of the City of Hope team. She writes about her experiences in the lab, learning the ropes, getting to understand the technology and language of science. But it’s her closing paragraph that sealed the deal for us. In a few short sentences she manages to capture the romance, the mystery and the magic of science. And we’re also happy to say that this program is coming back next year, and the year after that, for five more years. Our Board has just approved renewed funding. The name of the program is changing, it will be called SPARK, but the essence will remain the same. Giving young students a glimpse at a future in science. You don’t need a crystal ball to know that with these students the future is bright. Here’s Selena’s winning blog:

My very own lab coat. It was a lot to live up to, my freshly laundered lab coat with the City of Hope logo. Looking around the lab, I was nervous and excited to start my very first day. There were papers to read and meetings with my mentor to hear about my project. I was starstruck, as I learned that I would be working with induced pluripotent stem cells, Alzheimer’s disease, and CRISPR. Terms that seemed to only exist in textbooks and science magazines that I lovingly read at the library were suddenly alive to me. Although, embarrassingly enough, the only thing that came to mind when my mentor mentioned CRISPR was a salad crisper. Fairly certain that she was a) speaking about something else and b) that I needed to eat more for breakfast, I asked her what that was. It turned out that CRISPR was a new genome editing tool we could use to create isogenic lines to study the independent effects of each allele of the APOE gene that is the most significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s. We would do this by converting a patient and wild-type fibroblast into induced pluripotent stem cells. From this, we would edit a normal allele into the patient’s cell for rescue and the mutated allele in the wild-type cell for insertion, respectively. We would eventually differentiate these cells into neurons and astrocytes to study how the change of this allele can impact neural interaction. This was real science in progress, not enshrined in a textbook, but free, fluid, and vibrant. I slowly grew into my own independence around the lab. I found myself more confident and emotionally invested with each experiment, every immunostaining and PCR. Science, for all of its realism, had always seemed like the unimaginable fantasy to me. Through this opportunity, science has become more tangible, grounded in unglamorous details: hard work and deadlines, mistakes and mishaps, long lab meetings and missed lunches. Yet, that has only made me more confident that I want to pursue science. Now, I’m embracing a reality, one that gives me something worth striving for. In fact, I am very fortunate that my project has encountered numerous obstacles. My initial response to these problems was and still is a lot less Zen and a lot more panic-driven. But I’ve slowly come to realize the beauty of the troubleshooting process for progress. My project has been an emotional rollercoaster, as our rescue cell line met success, but couldn’t advance to the next stage. Our insertion cell line appeared to have incorporated the mutation, but it turned out it only incorporated one allele. It’s been a process of finding the balance between defending our ideas and accepting new ones, the border between defending and defensiveness. My curiosity and drive to improve, to understand, to conquer the unknown is learning to coexist with the need for patience and flexibility No matter how solid our theory should have been, reality is fickle and all the more interesting for it. I thought science was all about doubt and skepticism, questioning everything. Through this internship, I’ve learned that there’s also a surprising amount of faith, the faith to accept any setbacks as part of the discovery process. I thought I loved science before because I loved how enough facts could help me make sense of things. But through this internship in the lab, I’m learning to love a larger part of science, which is not only loving knowledge, but also loving not knowing, loving discovery for all of its uncertainty and perfect imperfections. I’m learning to grow into my lab coat, and hopefully, to find my place in the field of science.

Improving process drives progress in stem cell research

shutterstock_212888935Process is not a sexy word. No one gets excited thinking about improving a process. Yet behind every great idea, behind every truly effective program is someone who figured out a way to improve the process, to make that idea not just work, but work better.

It’s not glamorous. Sometimes it’s not even pretty. But it is essential.

Yesterday in Oakland our governing Board approved two new concepts to improve our process, to help us fund research in a way that is faster, smarter and ultimately helps us better meet our mission of accelerating the development of stem cell therapies for patients with unmet medical needs.

The new concepts are for Discovery – the earliest stage of research – and the Translational phase, a critical step in moving promising therapies out of the lab and toward clinical trials where they can be tested in people.

In a news release C. Randal Mills, Ph.D., CIRM’s President and CEO, said that these additions built on the work started when the agency launched CIRM 2.0 in January for the clinical phase of research:

“What makes this approach different is that under CIRM 2.0 we are creating a pathway for research, from Discovery to Translational and Clinical, so that if a scientist is successful with their research at one level they are able to move that ahead into the next phase. We are not interested in research just for its own sake. We are interested in research that is going to help us help patients.”

In the Discovery program, for example, we will now be able to offer financial incentives to encourage researchers who successfully complete their work to move it along into the Translational phase – either themselves or by finding a scientific partner willing to take it up and move it forward.

This does a number of things. First it helps create a pipeline for the most promising projects so ideas that in the past might have stopped once the initial study ended now have a chance to move forward. Obviously our hope is that this forward movement will ultimately lead to a clinical trial. That won’t happen with every research program we fund but this approach will certainly increase the possibility that it might.

There’s another advantage too. By scheduling the Discovery and Translational awards more regularly we are creating a grant system that has more predictability, making it easier for researchers to know when they can apply for funding.

We estimate that each year there will be up to 50 Discovery awards worth a total of $53 million; 12 Translation awards worth a total of $40 million; and 12 clinical awards worth around $100 million. That’s a total of more than $190 million every year for research.

This has an important advantage for the stem cell agency too. We have close to $1 billion left in the bank so we want to make sure we spend it as wisely as we can.

As Jonathan Thomas, Ph.D. J.D, the Chair of our Board, said, having this kind of plan helps us better plan our financial future;

“Knowing how often these programs are going to be offered, and how much money is likely to be awarded means the Board has more information to work with in making decisions on where best to allocate our funding.”

The Board also renewed funding for both the Bridges and SPARK (formerly Creativity) programs. These are educational and training programs aimed at developing the next generation of stem cell scientists. The Bridges students are undergraduate or Master’s level students. The SPARK students are all still in high school. Many in both groups come from poor or low-income communities. This program gives them a chance to work in a world-class stem cell research facility and to think about a career in science, something that for many might have been unthinkable without Bridges or SPARK.

Process isn’t pretty. But for the students who can now think about becoming a scientist, for the researchers who can plan new studies, and for the patients who can now envision a potential therapy getting into clinical trials, that process can make all the difference.

Stem Cell Stories that Caught Your Eye: The Most Popular Stem Cellar Stories of 2014

2014 marked an extraordinary year for regenerative medicine and for CIRM. We welcomed a new president, several of our research programs have moved into clinical trials—and our goal of accelerating treatments for patients in need is within our grasp.

As we look back we’d like to revisit The Stem Cellar’s ten most popular stories of 2014. We hope you enjoyed reading them as much as we did reporting them. And from all of us here at the Stem Cell Agency we wish you a Happy Holidays and New Year.

10. UCSD Team Launches CIRM-Funded Trial to Test Safety of New Leukemia Drug

9. Creating a Genetic Model for Autism, with a Little Help from the Tooth Fairy

8. A Tumor’s Trojan Horse: CIRM Researchers Build Nanoparticles to Infiltrate Hard-to-Reach Tumors

7. CIRM funded therapy for type 1 diabetes gets FDA approval for clinical trial

6. New Videos: Living with Crohn’s Disease and Working Towards a Stem Cell Therapy

5. Creativity Program Students Reach New Heights with Stem Cell-Themed Rendition of “Let it Go”

4. Scientists Reach Yet Another Milestone towards Treating Type 1 Diabetes

3. Meet the Stem Cell Agency President C. Randal Mills

2. Truth or Consequences: how to spot a liar and what to do once you catch them

1. UCLA team cures infants of often-fatal “bubble baby” disease by inserting gene in their stem cells; sickle cell disease is next target

CIRM Creativity Student Cindy Nguyen Goes “Beyond the Classroom”

This summer we’re sponsoring high school interns in stem cell labs throughout California as part of our annual Creativity Program. We asked those students to share their experiences through blog posts and videos.

Today in our final installment, we hear from Cindy Nguyen, who has been busy at Stanford University’s Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine.

Beyond the Classroom

Cindy Nguyen

“And these are human induced pluripotent stem cells.”

I stood in awe. It was my first day in the lab, and I could not believe what I was seeing for the first time. I remembered reading about these “inner healers” in AP Biology class just a year ago and thinking about the endless possibilities of research that these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could lead to. In a small classroom miles away from Stanford University, the existence of iPSCs seemed surreal and inaccessible. However, here I was standing before these cells, as one of the post-doctoral fellows of my lab was culturing them while describing their purpose.

Picking colonies at the bench.

Picking colonies at the bench.

One of the projects of my lab involves differentiating iPSCs into beating cardiomyocytes. It is almost unbelievable that fibroblasts could have their “biological clocks” rewounded and then be differentiated into pulsing heart cells so easily. I was reminded yet again of the incredible power of scientific research and all the open questions left to answer about iPSCs.

Spending the summer at a research laboratory at Stanford has given me the opportunity to become involved in life-changing research with access to everything I could ever need to conduct an investigation. Ranging from the thermal cycler to pipettes, all these commodities would be considered rare specialties in a high school biology classroom. I feel especially grateful to have the opportunity not only to conduct cutting-edge research in a lab on one of the most prestigious campuses in the country but also to learn about the world of research at my age.

Performing my first immunohistochemistry stain!

Performing my first immunohistochemistry stain!

Just a few months before, I had felt unsure about my future prospects. I did not have the chance to explore what having a career in science really meant. My family had a very little idea of what research was like and was not sure if this would be a rewarding career. However, after this summer’s incredible internship, I am confident in diving into biological sciences in the future. This position has given me the opportunity to show my family the great work that scientific researchers do every day and how rewarding it can be. The ambiguity of lab research has dissolved, and my future choices seems that much clearer.

Stem Cell Stories that Caught our Eye: “Let it Grow” Goes Viral, Stroke Pilot Study, The Bowels of Human Stem Cells, Tumor ‘Safety Lock.’

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

“Let it Grow” Goes Viral (and National!): Last week on The Stem Cellar we shared one of our favorite student videos from our annual Creativity Program. The video, a parody of the hit song from the movie Frozen, highlighted the outstanding creativity of a group of high school students from City of Hope in Los Angeles. And now, the song has made a splash nationwide—with coverage from ABC 7 Bay Area and even NBC New York!

Students from the City of Hope practice their routine for the group video

Students from the City of Hope practice their routine for the group video

Watch the full video on our YouTube page.

Stroke Pilot Study Shows Promise. Researchers at Imperial College London are currently testing whether stem cells extracted from a patient’s bone marrow can reverse the after effects of a stroke.

Reporting in this week’s Stem Cells Translational Medicine the team, lead by Dr. Soma Banjeree, describe their pilot study in which they collect a type of bone marrow stem cells called CD34+ cells. These cells can give rise to cells that make up the blood and the blood vessel lining. Earlier research suggested that treating stroke victims with these cells can improve recovery after a stroke—not because they replace the brain cells lost during a stroke, but because they release a chemical that triggers brain cells to grow. So the team decided to take the next step with a pilot study of five individuals.

As reported in a recent news release, this initial pilot study was only designed to test the safety of the procedure. But in a surprising twist, all patients in the study also showed significant improvement over a period of six months post-treatment. Even more astonishing, three of the patients (who had suffered one of the most severe forms of stroke) were living assistance-free. But since the first six months after injury is a time when many patients see improved function, these results need to be tested in a controlled trial where not all patients receive the cells

Immediate next steps include using advancing imaging techniques to more closely monitor what exactly happens in the brain after the patients are treated.

Want to learn more about using stem cells to treat stroke? Check out our Stroke Fact Sheet.

Deep in the Bowels of Stem Cell Behavior. Another research advance from UK scientists—this time at Queen Mary University of London researchers—announces important new insight into the behavior of adult stem cells that reside in the human gastro-intestinal tract (which includes the stomach and intestines). As described in a news release, this study, which examined the stem cells in the bowels of healthy individuals, as well as cells from early-stage tumors, points to key differences in their behaviors. The results, published this week in the journal Cell Reports, point to a potential link between stem cell behavior and the development of some forms of cancer.

By measuring the timing and frequency of mutations as they occur over time in aging stem cells, the research team, led by senior author Dr. Trevor Graham, found a key difference in stem cell behaviors between healthy individuals, and those with tumors.

In the healthy bowel, there is a relative stasis in the number of stem cells at any given time. But in cancer, that delicate balance—called a ‘stem cell niche’—appears to get thrown out of whack. There appears to be an increased number of cells, paired with more intense competition. And while these results are preliminary, they mark the first time this complex stem cell behavior has been studied in humans. According to Graham:

“Unearthing how stem cells behave within the human bowel is a big step forward for stem cell research. We now want to use the methods developed in this study to understand how stem cells behave inside bowel cancer, so we can increase our understanding of how bowel cancer grows. This will hopefully shed more light on how we can prevent bowel cancer—the fourth most common cancer in the UK.”

Finding the ‘Safety Lock’ Against Tumor Growth. It’s one of the greatest risks when transplanting stem cells: the possibility that the transplanted cells will grow out of control and form tumors.

But now, scientists from Keio University School of Medicine in Japan have devised an ingenious method that could negate this risk.

Reporting in the latest issue of Cell Transplantation and summarized in a news release, Dr. Masaya Nakamura and his team describe how they transplanted stem cells into the spinal columns of laboratory mice.

And here’s where they switched things up. During the transplantation itself, all mice were receiving immunosuppressant drugs. But then they halted the immunosuppressants in half the mice post-transplantation.

Withdrawing the drugs post-transplantation, according to the team’s findings, had the interesting effect of eliminating the tumor risk, as compared to the group who remained on the drugs. Confirmed with bioluminescent imaging that tracked the implanted cells in both sets of mice, these findings suggest that it in fact may be possible to finely tweak the body’s immune response after stem-cell transplantation.

Want to learn more about stem cells and tumor risk? Check out this recent video from CIRM Grantee Dr. Paul Knoepfler: Paul Knoepfler Talks About the Tendency of Embryonic Stem Cells to Form Tumors.

CIRM Creativity Student Hanan Sinada’s ‘Extraordinary’ Journey as a Budding Scientist

This summer we’re sponsoring high school interns in stem cell labs throughout California as part of our annual Creativity Program. We asked those students to share their experiences through blog posts and videos.

Today, we hear from Hanan Sinada, who has been busy at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco.

Extraordinary. That is the word I would use to describe my time here at Gladstone. This summer I have been an intern at the Gladstone Institute of Neurology, studying microglia. The brain has two main types of cells. Those cells are neurons and glial cells. Glia makes ninety percent of the cells in your brain. Although the word “glia” is derived from the Greek word meaning “glue”, glia cells are more like the support system that surround the neurons in the brain. Many people have not heard of glial cells because they are the dark matter of the brain and not involved in synaptic transition. However, glial cells have many significant functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Their main functions are to supply oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, hold neurons in place, destroy infectious agents, eliminate dead cells, and provide insulation (myelin) to neurons.

Hanan Sinada with her mentor, Gladstone Postdoctoral Researcher Dr. Grietje Krabbe

Hanan Sinada with her mentor, Gladstone Postdoctoral Researcher Dr. Grietje Krabbe

There are three main types of glial cells: microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In my research we focus specifically on microglial cells. Microglia only make up 10-15 percent of the total glia population. Microglia serve as the central nervous system’s macrophages. One function of microglia is to act as antigen presenting cells. Two other roles of the microglia are phagocytosis and cytotoxicity. In cytotoxicity, microglia release cytotoxic substances such as Nitric Oxide (NO) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to damage neurons that have been infected. This leads to cell death. Microglia’s main function is to maintain homeostasis. As a result, microglia are constantly scavenging for apoptotic cells, infectious agents, or any foreign material. Microglia are the main orchestrators of the inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS). When an injury occurs in the spinal cord or the brain, microglia release cytokines that cause inflammation in that given area.

In my research we look closely at microglia because they are related to many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. My lab started to question about what would happen if we annihilated all the microglia in the brain. Would it decrease the possibility of avoiding the development of those diseases? So we gave wild type mice a drug that depleted all the microglia in the brain, and surprisingly enough the microglia repopulated the brain rapidly after a couple of days. By doing immunohistochemistry and using certain markers, I was able to find where this new microglia-like cell was coming from. From previous studies we already know that this new microglia is not from the periphery. Monocytes cannot cross the blood brain barrier to replace the microglia. We believe that this new microglia is coming from progenitor cell (a type of stem cell). However, we do not know which cell type is giving rise to this new microglia population.

Before starting my internship I did not know that it was going to be the most amazing and interesting learning experience I have ever had in my life. Although every now and then I would have a science crisis, such as having to change antibody because a certain staining would not work, I am so happy and lucky to be doing this cutting edge research. Not only did I learn so much but I am proud to say that I have contributed to the future of science.

Creativity Program Students Reach New Heights with Stem Cell-Themed Rendition of “Let it Go”

This summer we’re sponsoring high school interns in stem cell labs throughout California as part of our annual Creativity Program. We asked those students to share their experiences through blog posts, photos and videos.

Today, we bring you an outstanding group video from CIRM Interns at City of Hope in Los Angeles, with their own special version of the popular song, “Let it Go” from the movie Frozen.

These students have without a doubt showcased their extensive scientific knowledge in one of the most creative ways we at CIRM have ever seen!

Without further ado, we present “Let it Grow.”

CIRM Creativity Program: Interns Document their Experiences, One Photo at a Time

This summer we’re sponsoring high school interns in stem cell labs throughout California as part of our annual Creativity Program. We asked those students to share their experiences through blog posts, videos and on Instagram.

Today, we take a look at some of the top Instagram photos from our students. Want to take a peak at the rest? Search for the #CIRMCreativityLab hashtag on your Instagram app!

Megan Handley, a Creativity student in the Denise Montell lab at UCSB, snapped this image of a Drosophila ovariole(egg string) taken in fluorescence microscopy. The blue is DAPI(stains nucleus, and the green is anti-HTs(stains membranes).

Megan Handley, a Creativity student in the Denise Montell lab at UCSB, snapped this image of a Drosophila ovariole(egg string) taken in fluorescence microscopy. The blue is DAPI(stains nucleus, and the green is anti-HTs(stains membranes). [Credit: Megan Handley]

Students from the City of Hope practice their routine for the group video

Students from the City of Hope practice their routine for the group video[Credit: Grace Lo]

Emma Cruisenberry, an intern in the Rothman Lab at UCSB, snapped these two photos C. elegans—the top under normal conditions, versus C. elegans expressing the GFP marker under UV light in the intestinal cells. [Credit: Emma Cruisenberry]

Emma Cruisenberry, an intern in the Rothman Lab at UCSB, snapped these two photos C. elegans—the top under normal conditions, versus C. elegans expressing the GFP marker under UV light in the intestinal cells. [Credit: Emma Cruisenberry]

CIRM Creativity Student Long Nguyen Learns First-Hand about the Value of Scientific Research

This summer we’re sponsoring high school interns in stem cell labs throughout California as part of our annual Creativity Program. We asked those students to share their experiences through blog posts and videos.

Today, we hear from Long Nguyen, who has been busy at Stanford University’s Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine.

Summer Reflections

Long Nguyen

It’s been a real pleasure spending the past eight weeks here at Stanford University. When I first walked into Beckman Center on June 9th, I did not know what to expect. There was a crowd of students all waiting, just as I was. I got my lab coat, my notebooks, and my bag. Frankly, I was anxious beyond imagination. At the time, I was still wondering to myself: “How did I get into this program? It’s inexplicable.” Those thoughts vanished as I stepped out of that room three hours later and headed to my workplace. I was confident and ready to start the new experience.

The beloved hood upon which I daringly cultured my cells!

The beloved hood upon which I daringly cultured my cells!

Learning about stem cells has made me more passionate about scientific research. I am glad to have been given this opportunity. Up to this point, I had only been exposed to textbooks upon textbooks—a dull methodology, as many may agree. The only hands-on experience I ever had were agarose gel electrophoresis and transformation of bacteria with an insulin-GFP reporter complex.

My experience here, however, has given me a strong foundation beyond the scope of these. Initially, I could not open a conical tube with one hand, and my pipetting was absolutely horrendous. I could not calculate simple dilutions for my working solutions. I even made the mistake of vacuum-aspirating over half of my cells during the second week. As time progressed, my culturing of stem cells improved considerably and I made few, if no, mistakes. I learned the background, the methodology, and the purpose of my work. These little details proved more important than they seemed, as they gave me a much clearer understanding of my work. Looking back, despite many, many errors, I learned to appreciate the value of science.

An interesting moment before a media change.

An interesting moment before a media change.

Prior to my experience, I had known little about stem cells: they were mentioned briefly in a page of my AP Biology textbook. I only knew that they differentiated into specific cell types to repair the body; there was no mention of iPSCs in the slightest. My knowledge of stem cells now is much more extensive. Regenerative medicine, wound healing, disease treatments—all that can be possible with stem cell research surprised me, to say the least. I have no doubts that this developing field will be a major game changer in the coming decades. The research is definitely something to respect. Being a part of ongoing research made me more aware of the problems that scientists, especially those in medicine, face in their attempts to do something, whether it be to cure scleroderma, to repair damaged neural connections, or to screen drugs with iPSC-derived cells. One thing is for sure: what I do now and what I expose myself to will be critical once I start planning for my future. Thanks go to Stanford’s faculty, SIMR 2014, CIRM, my peers, and my family, all of whom have supported me in my work.

My dear cells!

My dear cells!