Genetic defect leads to slower production of brain cells linked to one form of autism

Child with Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder that is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability in children, and has also been linked to a form of autism. Uncovering the cause of FXS could help lead to a deeper understanding of autism, what causes it and ultimately, it’s hoped, to treating or even preventing it.

Researchers at Children’s Hospital in Chicago looked at FXS at the stem cell level and found how a genetic defect has an impact on the development of neurons (nerve cells in the brain) and how that in turn has an impact on the developing brain in the fetus.

In a news release on Eurekalert, Dr. Yongchao Ma, the senior author of the study, says this identified a problem at a critical point in the development of the brain:

“During embryonic brain development, the right neurons have to be produced at the right time and in the right numbers. We focused on what happens in the stem cells that leads to slower production of neurons that are responsible for brain functions including learning and memory. Our discoveries shed light on the earliest stages of disease development and offer novel targets for potential treatments.”

The team looked at neural stem cells and found that a lack of one protein, called FMRP, created a kind of cascade that impacted the ability of the cells to turn into neurons. Fewer neurons meant impaired brain development. 

The findings, published in the journal Cell Reports, help explain how genetic information flows in cells in developing babies and, according to Dr. Ma, could lead to new ideas on how to treat problems.

“Currently we are exploring how to stimulate FMRP protein activity in the stem cell, in order to correct the timing of neuron production and ensure that the correct amount and types of neurons are available to the developing brain. There may be potential for gene therapy for fragile X syndrome.”

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