Friday Stem Cell Roundup: Making Nerves from Blood; New Clues to Treating Parkinson’s

Stanford lab develops method to make nerve cells from blood.

wernig_ineurons_blood

Induced neuronal (iN) cells derived from adult human blood cells. Credit: Marius Wernig, Stanford University.

Back in 2010, Stanford Professor Marius Wernig and his team devised a method to directly convert skin cells into neurons, a nerve cell. This so-called transdifferentiation technique leapfrogs over the need to first reprogram the skin cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. This breakthrough provided a more efficient path to studying how genetics plays a role in various mental disorders, like autism or schizophrenia, using patient-derived cells. But these types of genetic analyses require data from many patients and obtaining patient skin samples hampered progress because it’s not only an invasive, somewhat painful procedure but it also takes time and money to prepare the tissue sample for the transdifferentiation method.

This week, the Wernig lab reported on a solution to this bottleneck in the journal, PNAS. The study, funded in part by CIRM, describes a variation on their transdifferentiation method which converts T cells from the immune system, instead of skin cells, into neurons. The huge advantage with T cells is that they can be isolated from readily available blood samples, both fresh or frozen. In a press release, Wernig explains this unexpected but very welcomed result:

“It’s kind of shocking how simple it is to convert T cells into functional neurons in just a few days. T cells are very specialized immune cells with a simple round shape, so the rapid transformation is somewhat mind-boggling. We now have a way to directly study the neuronal function of, in principle, hundreds of people with schizophrenia and autism. For decades we’ve had very few clues about the origins of these disorders or how to treat them. Now we can start to answer so many questions.”

Two studies targeting Parkinson’s offer new clues to treating the disease (Kevin McCormack)
Despite decades of study, Parkinson’s disease remains something of a mystery. We know many of the symptoms – trembling hands and legs, stiff muscles – are triggered by the loss of dopamine producing cells in the brain, but we are not sure what causes those cells to die. Despite that lack of certainty researchers in Germany may have found a way to treat the disease.

Mitochondria

Simple diagram of a mitochondria.

They took skin cells from people with Parkinson’s and turned them into the kinds of nerve cell destroyed by the disease. They found the cells had defective mitochondria, which help produce energy for the cells. Then they added a form of vitamin B3, called nicotinamide, which helped create new, healthy mitochondria.

In an article in Science & Technology Research News Dr. Michela Deleidi, the lead researcher on the team, said this could offer new pathways to treat Parkinson’s:

“This substance stimulates the faulty energy metabolism in the affected nerve cells and protects them from dying off. Our results suggest that the loss of mitochondria does indeed play a significant role in the genesis of Parkinson’s disease. Administering nicotinamide riboside may be a new starting-point for treatment.”

The study is published in the journal Cell Reports.

While movement disorders are a well-recognized feature of Parkinson’s another problem people with the condition suffer is sleep disturbances. Many people with Parkinson’s have trouble falling asleep or remaining asleep resulting in insomnia and daytime sleepiness. Now researchers in Belgium may have uncovered the cause.

Working with fruit flies that had been genetically modified to have Parkinson’s symptoms, the researchers discovered problems with neuropeptidergic neurons, the type of brain cell that helps regulate sleep patterns. Those cells seemed to lack a lipid, a fat-like substance, called phosphatidylserine.

In a news release Jorge Valadas, one of the lead researchers, said replacing the missing lipid produced promising results:

“When we model Parkinson’s disease in fruit flies, we find that they have fragmented sleep patterns and difficulties in knowing when to go to sleep or when to wake up. But when we feed them phosphatidylserine–the lipid that is depleted in the neuropeptidergic neurons–we see an improvement in a matter of days.”

Next, the team wants to see if the same lipids are low in people with Parkinson’s and if they are, look into phosphatidylserine – which is already approved in supplement form – as a means to help ease sleep problems.

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