Stem Cell Stories that Caught our Eye: A Zebrafish’s Stripes, Stem Cell Sound Waves and the Dangers of Stem Cell Tourism

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) owes its name to a repeating pattern of blue stripes alternating with golden stripes. [Credit: MPI f. Developmental Biology/ P. Malhawar]

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) owes its name to a repeating pattern of blue stripes alternating with golden stripes. [Credit: MPI f. Developmental Biology/ P. Malhawar]

How the Zebrafish Got its Stripes. Scientists in Germany have identified the different pigment cells that emerge during embryonic development and that determine the signature-striped pattern on the skins of zebrafish—one of science’s most commonly studied model organisms. These results, published this week in the journal Science, will help researchers understand how patterns, from stripes to spots to everything in between, develop.

In the study, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology mapped how three distinct pigment cells, called black cells, reflective silvery cells, and yellow cells emerge during development and arrange themselves into the characteristic stripes. While researchers knew these three cell types were involved in stripe formation, what they discovered here was that these cells form when the zebrafish is a mere embryo.

“We were surprised to observe such cell behaviors, as these were totally unexpected from what we knew about color pattern formation”, says Prateek Mahalwar, first author of the study, in a news release.

What most surprised the research team, according to the news release, was that the three cell types each travel across the embryo to form the skin from a different direction. According to Dr. Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, the study’s senior author:

“These findings inform our way of thinking about color pattern formation in other fish, but also in animals which are not accessible to direct observation during development such as peacocks, tigers and zebras.”

Sound Waves Dispense Individual Stem Cells. It happens all the time in the lab: scientists need to isolate and study a single stem cell. The trick is, how best to do it. Many methods have been developed to achieve this goal, but now scientists at the Regenerative Medicine Institute (REMEDI) at NUI Galway and Irish start-up Poly-Pico Technologies Ltd. have pioneered the idea of using sound waves to isolate living stem cells, in this case from bone marrow, with what they call the Poly-Pico micro-drop dispensing device.

Poly-Pico Technologies Ltd., a start-up that was spun out from the University of Limerick in Ireland, has developed a device that uses sound energy to accurately dispense protein, antibodies and DNA at very low volumes. In this study, REMEDI scientists harnessed this same technology to dispense stem cells.

These results, while preliminary, could help improve our understanding of stem cell biology, as well as a number of additional applications. As Poly-Pico CEO Alan Crean commented in a news release:

“We are delighted to see this new technology opportunity emerge at the interface between biology and engineering. There are other exciting applications of Poly-Pico’s unique technology in, for example, drug screening and DNA amplification. Our objective here is to make our technology available to companies, and researchers, and add value to what they are doing. This is one example of such a success.”

The Dangers of Stem Cell Toursim. Finally, a story from ABC News Australia, in which they recount a woman’s terrifying encounter with an unproven stem cell technique.

In this story, Annie Levington, who has suffered from multiple scleoris (MS) since 2007, tells of her journey from Melbourne to Germany. She describes a frightening experience in which she paid $15,000 to have a stem cell transplant. But when she returned home to Australia, she saw no improvement in her MS—a neuroinflammatory disease that causes nerve cells to whither.

“They said I would feel the effects within the next three weeks to a year. And nothing – I had noticed nothing whatsoever. [My neurologist] sent me to a hematologist who checked my bloods and concluded there was no evidence whatsoever that I received a stem cell transplant.”

Sadly, Levington’s story is not unusual, though it is not as dreadful as other instances, in which patients have traveled thousands of miles to have treatments that not only don’t cure they condition—they actually cause deadly harm.

The reason that these unproven techniques are even being administered is based on a medical loophole that allows doctors to treat patients, both in Australia and overseas, with their own stem cells—even if that treatment is unsafe or unproven.

And while there have been some extreme cases of death or severe injury because of these treatments, experts warn that the most likely outcome of these untested treatments is similar to Levington’s—your health won’t improve, but your bank account will have dwindled.

Want to learn more about the dangers of stem cell tourism? Check out our Stem Cell Tourism Fact Sheet.

A Cool New Way of Raising Funds and Awareness

Raising money to help fight a disease is tough. Trying to raise awareness about the disease can be just as tough. Doing both together is positively masochistic; an experience that is often as rewarding as dumping a bucket of ice cold water over your head.

Have you taken the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge?

Have you taken the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge?

And that’s precisely what a growing number of people around the country are doing to raise awareness about—and money for research into—Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. They are dumping buckets of ice-cold water on their head.

It’s called, not surprisingly, the Ice Bucket Challenge. The idea behind it is simple. You dare someone you know to dump a bucket of ice cold water over their head within the next 24 hours or make a donation to help fight ALS. Once the person you have challenged either completes the challenge or makes a donation they then challenge other people—usually three other people—to do the same. And of course there’s nothing stopping you both dumping the water on yourself and making a donation.

The idea started out with people who had ALS and their friends and family but it has quickly spread. Celebrities such as Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, singer/actor Justin Timberlake, TV newsman Matt Lauer and even New Jersey Governor Chris Christie have all taken the Challenge. In fact the campaign has gone viral with videos and pictures of people taking the Challenge popping up on social media – Facebook and Instagram in particular – at a bewildering rate.

It’s more than just an opportunity to laugh at a potential Presidential candidate taking a self-inflicted cold shower it’s also raising a ton of money. The ALS Association says it raised $4 million in donations between the end of July and August 12th. That’s more than three and a half times more than it raised during the same period last year. They have also added more than 70,000 new donors to their cause.

That money goes to research into finding new treatments for ALS because right now there is no effective therapy at all. It also goes to help people living with this nasty, debilitating and ultimately deadly disease.

In a blog on the ALS website Barbara Newhouse, the President and CEO of the ALS Association said:

“We have never seen anything like this in the history of the disease. We couldn’t be more thrilled with the level of compassion, generosity and sense of humor that people are exhibiting as they take part in this impactful viral initiative.”

What I love about this is not just that it is raising awareness and funds for a truly worthwhile cause but that it also shows how a little bit of creativity can create so much more interest in a disease, and the people suffering from it, than any amount of well-meaning, more traditional attempts at education.

At the Stem Cell Agency we have worked closely with our friends in the ALS Association for many years and they do terrific work (you can read about our funding on our ALS Fact Sheet). But it’s a relatively rare condition – only affecting some 30,000 people in the U.S. at any one time – so it always struggles to get people’s attention compared to bigger diseases such as Alzheimer’s or stroke. But with this campaign they have changed that. They have taken a simple idea, a simple challenge, and used it to open people’s eyes to what they can do to help fight back against a deadly disease.

I find that really refreshing. As refreshing as a bucket of water over my own head.

Kevin McCormack

Creaky Cell Machinery Affects the Aging Immune System, CIRM-Funded Study Finds

Why do our immune systems weaken over time? Why are people over the age of 60 more susceptible to life-threatening infections and many forms of cancer? There’s no one answer to these questions—but scientists at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), have uncovered an important mechanism behind this phenomenon.

Reporting in the latest issue of the journal Nature, UCSF’s Dr. Emmanuelle Passegué and her team describe how blood and immune cells must be continually replenished over the lifetime of an organism. As that organism ages the complex cellular machinery that churns out new cells begins to falter. And when that happens, the body can become more susceptible to deadly infections, such as pneumonia.

As Passegué so definitively put it in a UCSF news release:

“We have found the cellular mechanism responsible for the inability of blood-forming cells to maintain blood production over time in an old organism, and have identified molecular defects that could be restored for rejuvenation therapies.”

The research team, which examined this mechanism in old mice, focused their efforts on hematopoetic stem cells—a type of stem cell that is responsible for producing new blood and immune cells. These stem cells are present throughout an organism’s lifetime, regularly dividing to preserve their own numbers.

Molecular tags of DNA damage are highlighted in green in blood-forming stem cells. [Credit: UCSF]

Molecular tags of DNA damage are highlighted in green in blood-forming stem cells. [Credit: UCSF]

But in an aging organism, these cells’ ability to generate new copies is not as good as it used to be. When the research team dug deeper they found a key bit of cellular machinery, called the mini-chromosome maintenance helicase, breaks down. When that happens, the DNA inside the cell can’t replicate itself properly—and the newly generated cell is not running on all cylinders.

One of the first things that these old stem cells lose as a result is their ability to make B cells. B cells, a key component of the immune system, normally make antibodies that fight infection. As B cell numbers dwindle in an aging organism, so too does their ability to fight infection. As a result the organism’s risk for contracting dangerous illnesses skyrockets.

This research, which was funded in part by CIRM, not only informs what goes wrong in an aging organism at the molecular level, but also points to new targets that could keep these stem cells functioning at full capacity, helping promote so-called ‘healthy aging.’ As Passegué added:

“Everybody talks about healthier aging. The decline of stem-cell function is a big part of age-related problems. Achieving longer lives relies in part on achieving a better understanding of why stem cells are not able to maintain optimal functioning.”

Creativity Program Students Reach New Heights with Stem Cell-Themed Rendition of “Let it Go”

This summer we’re sponsoring high school interns in stem cell labs throughout California as part of our annual Creativity Program. We asked those students to share their experiences through blog posts, photos and videos.

Today, we bring you an outstanding group video from CIRM Interns at City of Hope in Los Angeles, with their own special version of the popular song, “Let it Go” from the movie Frozen.

These students have without a doubt showcased their extensive scientific knowledge in one of the most creative ways we at CIRM have ever seen!

Without further ado, we present “Let it Grow.”

Stem Cell Stories that Caught our Eye: Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s and Reducing the Risk of Causing Tumors

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Cell therapy for Parkinson’s advancing to the clinic. A decade-long moratorium on the transplant of fetal nerve tissue into Parkinson’s patient will end in two months when the first patients in a large global trial will receive the cells. BioScience Technology did a detailed overview on the causes for the moratorium and the optimism about the time being right to try again. The publication also talks about what most people in the field believe will be the long-term solution: moving from scarce fetal tissue to nerve cells grown from readily available embryonic stem cells. The author’s jumping off point was a pair of presentations at the International Society for Stem Cell Research in June, which we wrote about at the time. But the BioScience piece provides more background on the mixed results of earlier studies and references to recent journal publications showing long term—as much as 20 year—benefit for some of those patients.

It goes on to describe multiple reasons why, once the benefit is confirmed with fetal cells, moving to stem cells might be the better way to go. Not only are they more readily available, they can be purified in the lab as they are matured into the desired type of early-stage nerve cell. Researchers believe that some of the side effects seen in the early fetal trials stemmed from the transplants containing a second type of cell that caused jerking movements known as dyskinesias. One stem cell trial is expected to start in 2017, which we discussed in June.

Immunity persists through a special set of stem cells. Our immune system involves so many players and so much cell-to-cell interaction that there are significant gaps in our understanding of how it all works. One of those is how we can have long-term immunity to certain pathogens. The T-cells responsible for destroying invading bugs remember encountering specific ones, but they only live for a few years, generally estimated at five to 15. The blood-forming stem cells that are capable of generating all our immune cells would not have memory of specific invaders so could not be responsible for the long term immunity.

Now, an international team from Germany and from the Hutchison Center in Washington has isolated a subset of so-called “memory T-cells” that have stem cell properties. They can renew themselves and they can generate diverse offspring cells. Researchers have assumed cells like this must exist, but could not confirm it until they had some of the latest gee-wiz technologies that allow us to study single cells over time. ScienceDaily carried a story derived from a press release from the university in Munich and it discusses the long-term potential benefits from this finding, most notably for immune therapies in cancer. The team published their work in the journal Immunity.

Method may reduce the risk of stem cells causing tumors. When teams think about transplanting cells derived from pluripotent stem cells, either embryonic or iPS cells, they have to be concerned about causing tumors. While they will have tried to mature all the cells into a specific desired adult tissue, there may be a few pluripotent stem cells still in the mix that can cause tumors. A team at the Mayo Clinic seems to have developed a way to prevent any remaining stem cells in transplants derived from iPS cells from forming tumors. They treated the cells with a drug that blocks an enzyme needed for the stem cells to proliferate. Bio-Medicine ran a press release from the journal that published the finding, Stem Cells and Development. Unfortunately, that release lacks sufficient detail to know exactly what they did and its full impact. But it is nice to know that someone is developing some options of ways to begin to address this potential roadblock.

Multiple sclerosis just got easier to study. While we often talk about the power of iPS type stem cells to model disease, we probably devote too few electrons to the fact that the process is not easy and often takes a very long time. Taking a skin sample from a patient, reprogramming it to be an iPS cell, and then maturing those into the adult tissue that can mimic the disease in a dish takes months. It varies a bit depending on the type of adult tissue you want, but the nerve tissue that can mimic multiple sclerosis (MS) takes more than six months to create. So a team at the New York Stem Cell Foundation has been working on ways to speed up that process for MS. They now report that they have cut the time in half. This should make it much easier for more teams to jump into the effort of looking for cures for the disease. ScienceCodex ran the foundations press release.

Stem Cells become Tool to Screen for Drugs; Fight Dangerous Heart Infections.

A Stanford study adds a powerful example to our growing list of diseases that have yielded their secrets to iPS-type stem cells grown in a dish. These “disease-in-a-dish” models have become one of the most rapidly growing areas of stem cell science. But this time they did not start with skin from a patient with a genetic disease and see how that genetic defect manifests in cells in a dish. Instead they started with normal tissue and looked at how the resulting cells reacted to viral infection.

They were looking at a nasty heart infection called viral myocarditis, which can begin to cause damage to heart muscle within hours and often leads to death. Existing antiviral drugs have only a modest impact on reducing these infections. So even though there is an urgent need to find better drugs, animal models have not proven very useful and there is no ready supply of human heart tissue for lab study.

To create a ready supply of human heart tissue Joseph Wu’s CIRM-funded team at Stanford started with skin samples from three healthy donors, reprogrammed them into iPS cells and then matured those into heart muscle tissue. Then they took one of the main culprits of this infection, coxsackievirus, and labeled it with a fluorescent marker so they could track its activity in the heart cells.

They were able to verify that the virus infected the cells in a dish just as they do in normal heart tissue. And when they tried treating the cells with four existing antiviral drugs they saw the same modest decrease in the rate of infected cells seen in patients. For one of the drugs that had been shown to cause some heart toxicity, they also saw some damage to the cells in the dish.

They propose that their model can now be used to screen thousands of compounds for potentially more effective and safer drugs. They published their results in Circulation Research July 15.

Clever Stem Cells Withstand Chemo Drug’s Harmful Side Effects

For some conditions, it seem that the treatment can cause almost as many problems as than the disease itself. That’s often the case with some forms of cancer, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

The most common type of cancer to affect children, treatment usually involves chemotherapy with the drug methotrexate (MTX). And, while effective at destroying the deadly cancer cells circulating in the patients’ blood, it also does significant damage to another part of the body: the bone.

Scientists have long sought a method that helps patients recover more quickly from the harmful effects of chemotherapy.

Scientists have long sought a method that helps patients recover more quickly from the harmful effects of chemotherapy.

But new research from Brown University’s Dr. Eric Darling and his team has found that not all types of bone cells are equally at risk of being damaged by MTX. In fact, one type may actually be impervious to the drug’s negative effects. These findings, published last week in the journal Experimental Cell Research, are especially important as doctors look to ways that help the youngest, most vulnerable cancer patients heal faster after treatment—regaining bone strength that can take them into a healthy adulthood.

As Olivia Beane, a graduate student in the Darling Lab and the lead author of this paper, explained in a news release:

“Kids undergo chemotherapy at such an important time when they should be growing, but instead they are introduced to this very harsh environment where bone cells are damaged with these drugs. If we found a stem cell that was resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent and could promote bone growth by becoming bone itself, then maybe they wouldn’t have these issues.”

The cell type Beane is referring to are called adipose-derived stem cells, or ASCs, which normally mature from this early, stem cell state into several types of mature cells, including bone tissue. Initially, Beane had been researching the basic properties of ASCs. But during her experiments she discovered that ASCs, unlike other stem cell types that mature into bone, appear to survive MTX. Now they just needed to understand why.

Further experiments revealed the underlying strengths of ASCs in resisting MTX’s effects. Normally, MTX works by binding to and shutting down a protein in the cell called dihydrofolate reductase, which is normally involved in synthesizing DNA. With DNA production shut down, cells can’t divide and multiply—which is great for killing harmful cancer cells, but potentially harmful as it can also destroy cells it shouldn’t.

However, ASCs are a little bit different. When coming into contact with MTX, these cells ramp up the DNA-promoting dihydrofolate reductase, producing more than enough to overcome a normal dose of MTX.

This discovery has raised some intriguing possibilities for treating MTX’s side effects. As Darling explained:

“Chemotherapies do a great job of killing cells and killing the cancer, and that’s what you want. But then there is a stage after that where you need to do recovery and regeneration.”

And while the results of this study are preliminary, the researchers are cautiously optimistic that the MTX-resistant properties of ASCs could be the key to fast tracking recovery times.

The first step, Darling adds, is to save a life. And MTX has done that for countless children afflicted by cancer. But the cost of saving that life should also be taken into account—so that these children who have already been through so much may one day not need to worry about long, healthy lives as they mature into adults.

Want to learn more about how CIRM-funded researchers are developing new tools to fight all types of leukemia? Check out our Leukemia Fact Sheet.

Anne Holden

Argentina Soccer Star Pins his World Cup Final Hopes on Stem Cells

I suppose we should have expected it. Every time there is a big sporting event stem cells seem to come into the conversation. So it’s not surprising that the World Cup in Brazil, the biggest sporting event on the planet, was bound to somehow, in some way, involve stem cells. And it has.

Argentina’s speedy attacker, Angel Di Maria, suffered a torn hamstring in the game against Belgium. He was initially ruled out for the rest of the tournament but then came news that he was hoping to be able to play in the final – if his team made it, which they have – by getting a stem cell therapy.

Angel Di Maria: Photo courtesy Fanny Schertzer

Angel Di Maria: Photo courtesy Fanny Schertzer

Now, as often happens in instances like this, the reports have been light on specifics although there are some hints in the media that it might involve the use of stem cells taken from Di Maria’s own fat tissue or from his blood.

The web site Inside Spanish Football mentioned that another player, Atletico Madrid’s Diego Costa, underwent a similar procedure to try and recover from an injury before a recent championship game. The web site described it this way:

“The medical procedure is used to regenerate damaged cells using the patient’s own healthy cells, with the primary object being to reduce inflammation and repair the torn muscle tissue.”

Not surprisingly, because famous athletes are involved, the therapy is getting a lot of exposure in the media. The same thing occurred when Peyton Manning, the quarterback for another kind of football team, the Denver Broncos, got a stem cell treatment for a neck injury; and when Yankee’s baseball pitcher C. C. Sabathia underwent a stem cell treatment for a knee injury. We blogged about both of these instances.

The problem with the coverage is that the media typically does a good job of explaining what the therapy is designed to do, but then fails to mention that none of these therapies have been tested or proven to work in a clinical trial. It gives the impression that this is a routine therapy for an injury. It’s not. It is, in every sense, experimental. And therein lies the problem. While the treatment may be safe there’s also a chance it is not. While it may be effective to some extent, we really have no way of knowing.

Another confounding factor in all this is that alongside the stem cell therapy, Di Maria is also getting intensive traditional therapy – ice, kinesiology, electro pulse stimulation and some rehabilitation exercises in the swimming pool. So even if Di Maria does beat the odds and return in time for the World Cup Final, we really won’t know if it was the stem cells, the traditional therapy, or both that worked.

And that’s the real problem here. It’s not that a professional athlete is doing everything he can to be ready for the biggest game of his life – that’s to be expected – but that the media doesn’t dig a little deeper to see if there’s any evidence this approach could work. By failing to do that they leave the playing field open to other “clinics” to offer this same kind of therapy to anyone; clinics who will promote their treatment “as used by” and give the impression that if it helped Argentina win the World Cup, or at least come in second, then it can certainly help you bounce back from your injury.

So next time you read about a superstar athlete turning to stem cells for a miracle cure don’t assume that it will help them. The odds are it won’t. Sports are fun. But your health is nothing to play around with.

Before considering any stem cell treatment, we highly suggest looking at educational information for patients provided by the International Society for Stem Cell Research, the world’s leading stem cell research organization. Their printable, take-it-along Patient Handbook identifies questions any patient should ask. It would be a good idea to review answers with a physician you trust.

kevin mccormack

Cells Behaving Badly: Rogue Stem Cells Set Stage for Lung Cancer, CIRM-Funded Study Finds

Occasionally, too much of a good thing can turn bad, an adage confirmed in a study published today by UCLA scientists.

Led by Dr. Brigitte Gomperts, a team of stem cell experts have honed in on how adult stem cells residing in the lung spring into action in order to repair damaged tissue. Normally, this process is vital for maintaining tissue health. But sometimes, things can go awry—thus setting the stage for cancer.

Scientists have hypothesized that some type of regulatory molecule pulled the strings—launching adult stem cells into action after injury or disease—but identifying that molecule had proven far more difficult.

Scientists have discovered how out-of-control adult stem cells lead to pre-cancerous lesions in the lung.

Scientists have discovered how out-of-control adult stem cells lead to pre-cancerous lesions in the lung.

In this study, published online today in the journal Stem Cell, Dr. Gomperts and her team believe they have found this molecular puppet master: a class of molecules called reactive oxygen species, or ROS.

Recently, scientists observed low levels of ROS to play a role in maintaining a variety of cellular functions. They had also noticed that while low-to-moderate ROS levels were essential, any spike in ROS appeared to have a toxic effect on the cell.

In this study, which was supported by a CIRM New Faculty Award, the UCLA team found that a ‘dynamic flux’ in ROS levels from low to moderate helped drive adult stem cells to grow and divide at regular rates and repair damaged tissue. But when ROS levels got too high, the stem cells started dividing out of control, leading to what Gomperts called “pre-cancerous lesions.”

As she explained in today’s news release:

“Low ROS is what keeps stem cells in a ready state so that your body is poised and ready to respond to injury and repair. Loss of this ROS regulation leads to pre-cancerous lesions.”

Importantly, the team noted that many environmental factors are linked to an increase in ROS levels—such as exposure to cigarette smoke, smog or pathogens. Lung cancer remains the deadliest form of cancer in the United States. Therefore, finding a way to identify the cancer in this early, pre-cancerous stage, is crucial for reducing the risk of death.

As Gomperts put it:

“Now, with this precancerous model in place, we can begin looking for what we call ‘driver mutations,’ or those specific changes that take the pre-cancerous lesion to full-blown cancer.”

Gomperts is optimistic that this ‘personalized’ approach to drug discovery will lead to more effective therapies:

“There are likely multiple ways for a patient to get a pre-cancerous lesion so the process could be different amongst different groups of people. Imagine a personalized way to identify what pathways have gone wrong in a patient, so that we could target a therapy to that individual.”

ISSCR 2014: Talking Twitter and Stem Cells

One of the fascinating things about the ISSCR (International Society for Stem Cell Research) annual conference is that you learn so much about so many things, ranging from the latest in Parkinson’s research (more on that later this week) to the impact of social media on people’s knowledge about stem cells.

At a poster presentation Wednesday, Julie Robillard, Ph.D., a post doc researcher at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, talked about the way that people use Twitter to talk about stem cells.

Julie, a neuroscientist by training, became fascinated by the use of social media and has done a number of studies looking at the use of social media for topics like information about aging, gene therapy and now stem cells.

Dr. Julie Robillard at ISSCR 2014.

Dr. Julie Robillard at ISSCR 2014.

She says social media is reshaping how conversations take place between people who are interested in stem cells: anyone from a scientist to a patient to a provider of sham therapies. She says there is a lot of information out there about stem cells but the quality is not always great and in some cases it’s downright questionable.

For her poster presentation, entitled Stem Cells in Social Media: Implications for Public Policy, Julie focused on Twitter and searched for key words such as “stem cell” and “spinal cord injury.”

She said the thing that surprised her most was the sheer diversity of people that were using Twitter to communicate about stem cells: people from 41 different countries with the US, Canada, the UK and Australia the top four. She says this is clear evidence there is worldwide interest in stem cell research. The problem, however, is that the quality of many of the tweets was also widely varied. Some came from researchers and were thoughtful and trying to raise awareness about new research or important questions, but others—many others—were more interested in promoting stem cells as cures for everything from sagging skin or acne to severed spinal cords.

Julie says 15 percent of tweets came from companies involved in stem cell research. In some cases they may be companies who have results about research they are doing, but in others it was to promote a product or treatment that wasn’t necessarily approved or proven. Julie says they’re quite clever about how they do it, using hashtags (i.e. #stemcells) that suggest it came from someone’s personal account rather than a business address, but they then link back to the company site.

News reports, stories in newspapers, on the radio and TV or online are the single biggest drivers of traffic on Twitter and are a reminder of the importance of good journalism when covering these issues. A poorly written or researched story that makes inflated claims about a treatment, or fails to mention that the research was done in mice not people, can get huge play on social media and mislead many people. This is a little worrying when fewer and fewer mainstream media outlets have a dedicated science journalist on staff.

Julie cautions that when you read a tweet and don’t know the person who sent it, it’s a case of buyer-beware, don’t just accept it at face value.

She also says it’s a reminder to those of us trying to inform the public about all the progress being made with stem cell research that we need to be more engaged and more active, so that our voices can help drown out those with bad information or shoddy products to sell.

Kevin McCormack