Cells’ Knack for Hoarding Proteins Inadvertently Kickstarts the Aging Process

Even cells need to take out the trash—mostly damaged or abnormal proteins—in order to maintain a healthy clean environment. And scientists are now uncovering the harmful effects when cells instead begin to hoard their garbage.

Cells' penchant for hoarding proteins may spur the cellular aging process, according to new research.

Cells’ penchant for hoarding proteins may spur the cellular aging process, according to new research. [Labyrinth (1986)]

Aging, on the cellular level is—at its core—the increasing inability for cells to repair themselves over time. As cells begin to break down faster than they can be repaired, the risk of age-related diseases escalates. Cancer, heart disease and neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease are some of aging’s most deadly effects.

As a result, scientists have long searched for ways to give our cells a little help and improve our quality of life as we age. For example, recent research has pointed to a connection between fasting (restricting calories) and a longer lifespan, though the molecular mechanisms behind this connection remain somewhat cryptic.

But now Dr. Daniel Gottschling, a scientist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and an aging expert, has made extraordinary progress toward solving some of the mysteries of aging.

In two studies published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and eLife, Gottschling and colleagues discover that a particular long-lasting protein builds up over time in certain cell types, causing the buildup of a protein hoard that damages the cell beyond repair.

Clearing out the Cobwebs

Some cells, such as those that make up the skin or that reside in the gut, are continually replenished by a stockpile of adult stem cells. But other cells, such as those found in the eye and brain, last for years, decades and—in some cases—our entire lifetimes.

Within and surrounding these long-lived cells are similarly long-lived proteins which help the cell perform essential functions. For example, the lens of the human eye, which helps focus light, is made up of these proteins that arise during embryonic development and last for a lifetime.

Dr. Daniel Gottschling is looking to unlock the mysteries behind cellular aging.

Dr. Daniel Gottschling is looking to unlock the mysteries behind cellular aging. [Image courtesy of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center]

“Shortly after you’re born, that’s it, you get no more of that protein and it lives with you the rest of your life,” explained Gottschling.

As a result, if those proteins degrade and die, new ones don’t replace them—the result is the age-related disease called cataracts.

But scientists weren’t exactly sure of the relationship between these dying proteins and the onset of conditions such as cataracts, and other disease related to aging. Did these conditions occur because the proteins were dying? Or rather because the proteins were building up to toxic levels?

So Gottschling and his team set up a series of experiments to find out.

Stashing Trash

They developed a laboratory model by using yeast cells. Interestingly, yeast cells share several key properties with human stem cells, and are often the focus of early-stage research into basic, fundamental concepts of biology.

Like stem cells, yeast cells grow and divide asymmetrically. In other words, a ‘mother’ cell will produce many ‘daughter’ cells, but will itself remain intact. In general, yeast mother cells produce up to 35 daughter cells before dying—which usually takes just a few days.

 Yeast “mother” cells budding and giving birth to newborn “daughter” cells.  [Image courtesy of Dr. Kiersten Henderson / Gottschling Lab]

Yeast “mother” cells budding and giving birth to newborn “daughter” cells.
[Image courtesy of Dr. Kiersten Henderson / Gottschling Lab]

Here, the research team used a special labeling technique that marked individual proteins that exist within and surrounding these mother cells. These microscopic tracking devices then told researchers how these proteins behaved over the entire lifespan of the mother cell as it aged.

The team found a total of 135 long-lived proteins within the mother cell. But what really surprised them was what they found upon closer examination: all but 21 of these 135 proteins appeared to have no function. They appeared to be trash.

“No one’s ever seen proteins like this before [in aging],” said Nathanial Thayer, a graduate student in the Gottschling Lab and lead author of one of the studies.

Added Gottschling, “With the number of different fragments [in the mother cell], we think they’re going to cause trouble. As the daughter yeast cells grow and split off, somehow mom retains all these protein bits.”

This startling discovery opened up an entirely new set of questions, explained Gottschling.

“It’s not clear whether the mother’s trash keeper function is a selfless act designed to give her daughters the best start possible, or if she’s hanging on to them for another reason.”

Hungry, Hoarding Mother Cells

So Gottschling and his team took a closer look at one of these proteins, known as Pma1.

Recent work by the Gottschling Lab found that cells lose their acidity over time, which itself leads to the deterioration of the cells’ primary energy source. The team hypothesized that Pma1 was somehow intricately tied to corresponding levels of pH (high pH levels indicate an acidic environment, while lower pH levels signify a more basic environment).

In the second study published in eLife, led by Postdoctoral Fellow Dr. Kiersten Henderson, the team made several intriguing discoveries about the role of Pma1.

First, they uncovered a key difference between mother and daughter cells: daughter cells are born with no Pma1. As a result, they are far more acidic than their mothers. But when they ramped up Pma1 in the mother cells, the acidity levels in subsequent generations of daughter cells changed accordingly.

“When we boosted levels of the protein, daughter cells were born with Pma1 and became more basic (they had a lower pH), just like their mothers.”

Further examination uncovered the true relationship between Pma1 and these cells. At its most fundamental, Pma1 helps the mother cells eat.

“Pma1 plays a key role in cellular feeding,” said Gottschling. “The protein sits on the surface of cells and helps them take in nutrients from their environment.”

Pma1 gives the mother cell the ability to gorge herself. The more access to food she has, the easier it is for her to produce more daughter cells. By hoarding Pma1, the mother cell can churn out more offspring. Unfortunately, she is also signing her own death certificate—she’s creating a more basic environment that, in the end, proves toxic and contributes to her death.

The hoarding, it turns out, may not all be due to the mother cells’ failure to ‘take out the trash.’ Instead, she wants to keep eating and producing daughters—and hoarding Pma1 allows her to do just that.

“There’s this whole trade off of being able to divide quickly and the negative side is that the individual, the mother, does not get to live as long.”

Together, the results from these two studies provide a huge boost for researchers like Gottschling who are trying to unravel the molecular mysteries of aging. But the process is incredibly intricate, and there will likely be no one simple solution to improving quality of life as we get older.

“The whole issue of aging is so complex that we’re still laying the groundwork of possibilities of how things can go awry,” said Gottschling. “And so we’re still learning what is going on. We’re defining the aging process.”

New Cellular Tracking Device Tests Ability of Cell-Based Therapies to Reach Intended Destination

Therapies aimed at replacing damaged cells with a fresh, healthy batch hold immense promise—but there remains one major sticking point: once you have injected new, healthy cells into the patient, how do you track them and how do you ensure they do the job for which they were designed?

New tracking technique could improve researchers' ability to test potential cell therapies.

New tracking technique could improve researchers’ ability to test potential cell therapies.

Unfortunately, there’s no easy solution. The problem of tracking the movement of cells during cell therapy is that it’s hard to stay on their trail they enter the body. They can get mixed up with other, native cells, and in order to test whether the therapy is working, doctors often have to rely on taking tissue samples.

But now, scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh have devised an ingenious way to keep tabs on where cells go post injection. Their findings, reported last week in the journal Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, stand to help researchers identify whether cells are arriving at the correct destination.

The research team, lead by UCSD Radiology Professor Dr. Eric Ahrens, developed something called a periflourocarbon (PFC) tracer in conjunction with MRI technology. Testing this new technology in patients receiving immune cell therapy for colorectal cancer, the team found that they were better able to track the movement of the cells than with traditional methods.

“This is the first human PFC cell tracking agent, which is a new way to do MRI cell tracking,” said Ahrens in a news release. “It’s the first example of a clinical MRI agent designed specifically for cell tracking.”

They tagged these cells with atoms of fluorine, a compound that normally occurs at extremely low levels. After tagging the immune cells, the researchers could then see where they went after being injected. Importantly, the team found that more than one-half of the implanted cells left the injection site and headed towards the colon. This finding marks the first time this process had been so readily visible.

Ahrens explained the technology’s potential implications:

“The imaging agent technology has been shown to be able to tag any cell type that is of interest. It is a platform imaging technology for a wide range of diseases and applications.”

A non-invasive cell tracking solution could serve as not only as an attractive alternative to the current method of tissue sampling, it could even help fast-track through regulatory hurdles new stem cell-based therapies. According to Ahrens:

“For example, new stem cell therapies can be slow to obtain regulatory approvals in part because it is difficult, if not impossible, with current approaches to verify survival and location of transplanted cells…. Tools that allow the investigator to gain a ‘richer’ data set from individual patients mean it may be possible to reduce patient numbers enrolled in a trial, thus reducing total trial cost.”

What are the ways scientists see stem cells in the body? Check out our Spotlight Video on Magnetic Particle Imaging.

Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger: Scientists Work to Create Improved Immune System One Cell at a Time

The human immune system is the body’s best defense against invaders. But even our hardy immune systems can sometimes be outpaced by particularly dangerous bacteria, viruses or other pathogens, or even by cancer.

Salk Institute scientists have developed a new cellular reprogramming technique that could one day boost a weakened immune system.

Salk Institute scientists have developed a new cellular reprogramming technique that could one day boost a weakened immune system.

But what if we could give our immune system a boost when it needs it most? Last week scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences devised a new method of doing just that.

Reporting in the latest issue of the journal Stem Cells, Dr. Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte and his team announce a new method of creating—and then transplanting—white blood cells into laboratory mice. This new and improved method could have significant ramifications for how doctors attack the most relentless disease.

The authors achieved this transformation through the reprogramming of skin cells into white blood cells. This process builds on induced pluripotent stem cell, or iPS cell, technology, in which the introduction of a set of genes can effectively turn one cell type into another.

This Nobel prize-winning approach, while revolutionary, is still a many months’ long process. In this study, the Salk team found a way to shorten the cellular ‘reprogramming’ process from several months to just a few weeks.

“The process is quick and safe in mice,” said Izpisua Belmonte in a news release. “It circumvents long-standing obstacles that have plagued the reprogramming of human cells for therapeutic and regenerative purposes.”

Traditional reprogramming methods change one cell type, such as a skin cell, into a different cell type by first taking them back into a stem cell-like, or ‘pluripotent’ state. But here, the research team didn’t take the cells all the way back to pluripotency. Instead, they simply wiped the cell’s memory—and gave it a new one. As first author Dr. Ignacio Sancho-Martinez explained:

“We tell skin cells to forget what they are and become what we tell them to be—in this case, white blood cells. Only two biological molecules are needed to induce such cellular memory loss and to direct a new cell fate.”

This technique, which they dubbed ‘indirect lineage conversion,’ uses the molecule SOX2 to wipe the skin cell’s memory. They then use another molecule called miRNA 125b to reprogram the cell into a white blood cell.

These newly generated cells appear to engraft far better than cells derived from traditional iPS cell technology, opening the door to therapies that more effectively introduce these immune cells into the human body. As Sanchi-Martinez so eloquently stated:

“It is fair to say that the promise of stem cell transplantation is now closer to realization.”

Stories of Hope: Stroke

Six months after surviving a stroke, Sonia Olea wanted to die. Her right leg was weak, her right arm useless. She had trouble speaking and even small tasks were challenging. Just making a phone call was virtually impossible. One morning, she woke up with her arm pinned in an awkward, painful position. After finally repositioning it, she wanted to call her fiancé, but knew she couldn’t get the words out. That’s when it hit her.

Sonia has seen first hand how a stroke can rob you of even your most basic abilities.

Sonia has seen first hand how a stroke can rob you of even your most basic abilities.

“I thought, I’m only 32,” says Sonia. “How could this be happening to me?”

Nobody really had an answer. A stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks a vessel in the brain and cuts off blood flow. Brain cells begin to die within minutes when they are deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Stroke rates are on the rise for young adults for a variety of reasons but no one could pinpoint specifically what caused hers.

Slowly, Sonia fought back from her depression and realized she could do this. She would find a way to recover. Just one year later, she got a call from Stanford University; asking if she would be willing to participate in a cutting-edge, stem cell-based clinical trial.

Was she ever. The answer, says Sonia, was a no-brainer.

Rescuing Brain Cells
Led by CIRM grantee Gary Steinberg, M.D., Ph.D., chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at Stanford School of Medicine, the early phase clinical trial tested the safety of transplanting bone marrow stem cells into the brain. It was a revolutionary approach.

“The old notion was that you couldn’t recover from a stroke after around three months,” says Steinberg. “At that point, the circuits were completely dead—and you couldn’t revive them.”

While this was partially true, it was thought that brain cells, or neurons, just outside the stroke damage might be saved. Steinberg and collaborators at the University of Pittsburgh recognized that stem cells taken from bone marrow wouldn’t transform into functioning neurons. However, the transplanted cells could release molecules that might rescue neurons that were impaired, but not yet dead.

Brain Surgery
Sonia had surgery to transplant bone marrow stem cells into her brain in late May 2013. The improvement was almost instantaneous. “When I woke up, my speech was strong, I could lift up my feet and keep them in the air, I even raised my right hand,” says Sonia. Though the trial was primarily designed to study the stem cell therapy’s safety, researchers were also interested in its effectiveness.

“Sonia was one of our two remarkable patients who got better the day after surgery and continued to improve throughout the year,” says Steinberg. 18 patients in total were treated in that study.

Although Sonia’s treatment results are still very preliminary, they bode well for a separate CIRM-funded stroke research project also led by Steinberg. In this study, cells grown from embryonic stem cells will be turned into early-stage neuron, or brain, cells and then transplanted into the area of stroke damage. The team has found that transplanting these neural cells into mice or rats after a stroke helps the animals regain strength in their limbs. The team is busy working out the best conditions for growing these neural cells in order to take them into clinical trials.

In the meantime, Sonia continues to improve. “My leg is about 95 percent better and my arm is around 60 percent there,” says Sonia. “My speech isn’t perfect, but I can talk and that’s something I never could have done before the surgery.”

The added function has made a huge difference in her quality of life. She can walk, run, drive a car, call a restaurant to make a dinner reservation—simple things she took for granted before having a stroke. But most importantly, she has confidence in the future.

“Everything is good,” says Sonia, “and it’s only going to get better.”

To learn about CIRM-funded stroke research, visit our Stroke Fact Sheet. Read more about Sonia’s Story of Hope on our website.

Stories of Hope: Spinal Cord Injury

This week on The Stem Cellar we feature some of our most inspiring patients and patient advocates as they share, in their own words, their Stories of Hope.

Katie Sharify had six days to decide: would she let her broken body become experimental territory for a revolutionary new approach—even if it was unlikely to do her any good? The question was barely fathomable. She had only just regained consciousness. A week earlier, she had been in a car crash that damaged her spine, leaving her with no sensation from the chest down. In the confusion and emotion of those first few days, the family thought that the treatment would fix Katie’s mangled spinal cord. But that was never the goal. The objective, in fact, was simply to test the safety of the treatment. The misunderstanding – a cure, and then no cure — plunged the 23-year-old from hope to despair. And yet she couldn’t let the idea of this experimental approach go.

Katie never gave up hope that stem cell-based therapies could help her or others like her living with spinal cord injury.

Katie never gave up hope that stem cell-based therapies could help her or others like her living with spinal cord injury.

Just days after learning that she would never walk again, that she would never know when her bladder was full, that she would not feel it if she broke her ankle, she was thinking about the next girl who might lie in this bed with a spinal injury. If Katie walked away from this experimental approach—what would happen to others that came after her?

Her medical team provided a crash course in stem cell therapy to help Katie think things through. In this case the team had taken stem cells obtained from a five-day old embryo and converted them into cells that support communication between the brain and body. Those cells would be transplanted into the injured spines. Earlier experiments in animal models suggested that, once in place, these cells might help regenerate a patient’s own nerve tissue. But before scientists could do the experiment, they needed to make sure the technique they were using was safe by using a small number of cells, too few to likely have any benefit. And that’s why they wanted Katie’s help in this CIRM-funded trial. They explained the risks. They explained that she was unlikely to derive any benefit. They explained that she was just a step along the way. Even so, Katie agreed. She became the fifth patient in what’s called a Phase I trial: part of the long, arduous process required to bring new therapies to patients. Shortly after she was treated the trial stopped enrolling patients for financial reasons.

That was nearly three years ago. Since then, she has been through an intensive physical therapy program to increase her strength. She went back to college. She tried skiing and surfing. She learned how to make life work in this new body. But as she rebuilt her life she wondered if taking part in the clinical trial had truly made a difference.

“I was frustrated at first. I felt hopeless. Why did I even do this? Why did I even bother?” But soon she began to see how small advances were moving the science forward. She learned the steep challenges that await new therapies. Then this year, she discovered that the research she participated in was deemed to be safe and is about to enter its next phase, thanks to a $14.3 million grant from CIRM to Asterias Biotherapeutics. “This has been my wish from day one,” Katie says.

“It gives me so much hope to know there is an organization that cares and wants to push these therapies forward, that wants to find a cure or a treatment,” she says. “I don’t know what I would do if I thought nobody cared, nobody wanted to take any risks, nobody wanted to put any funding into spinal cord injuries.

“I really have to have some ray of hope to hold onto, and for me, CIRM is that ray of hope.”

For more information about CIRM-funded spinal cord injury research, visit our Spinal Cord Injury Fact Sheet. You can read more about Katie’s Story of Hope on our website.

CIRM 2.0: How to Build a Better Stem Cell Agency and Speed up Treatments to Patients

Change is never easy. We all get used to doing things in a certain way and it can sometimes be difficult to realize that the way we have chosen, while it may have worked well at one time is perhaps not the best way to achieve our goals at this time. Well, change is coming to the stem cell agency.

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It’s not surprising that our new President & CEO, C. Randal Mills, Ph.D., would want to introduce some of his own ideas about how best to run the agency in the current moment of stem cell science. After all, it’s those ideas that landed him the job in the first place. Now Randy wants us to develop a clearer focus, one that is more aligned with his 4-point criteria for assessing everything we do.

  1. Will it speed up treatments to patients
  2. Will it increase the likelihood of successful treatments for patients
  3. Does it target an unmet medical need
  4. Is it efficient.

That new focus begins with re-imagining how we can be most effective in the way we fund research. Right now we put out what’s called an RFA or Request for Application, telling people who have promising projects in a particular area of stem cell research to submit an application and if they are successful they’ll get up to $20 million, depending on the kind of project.

The problem is, we often have long gaps between each round of funding and so a company or institution with a promising therapy will sometimes have to wait as much as a couple of years before they can apply again. If they do wait and are successful in their application it could still be another year or two before they are able to gain actual funding and begin a clinical trial. But when lives are at stake, you can’t afford to wait that long. So we’re looking at ways of speeding things up, making it easier for the best science to get the funds needed when they are needed.

At our Board meeting yesterday Randy outlined some broad concepts about what he wants to do and how it can be done. It’s part of his vision for the agency, a new focus that he is calling CIRM 2.0 (with acknowledgments to Dr. Paul Knoepfler who coined the term earlier this year)

As with any simple idea it’s really complicated. We need to achieve greater speed, to streamline the way we do things, without sacrificing the quality of the review process because we need to ensure that we only fund the best science.

In the months to come, as the precise details about these proposed changes are fine tuned, the Board will hear in greater detail how this will work and, as always, it will be up to them to decide if they think it’s a good idea.

Either way it will start a conversation about how we can become more efficient and more effective at living up to our mission, of accelerating therapies that target patients with unmet medical needs. And that always has to be a good thing.

For more details about the other big events at yesterday’s Board meeting, including awarding $16 million to ViaCyte to help it advance its promising therapy for type 1 diabetes, you can read the news release posted on our website.

Stories of Hope: Leukemia

This week on The Stem Cellar we feature some of our most inspiring patients and patient advocates as they share, in their own words, their Stories of Hope.

Stem cells create life. But if things go wrong, they can also threaten it. Theresa Blanda found that out the hard way. Fortunately for her, CIRM-funded research helped her fight this threat, and get her life back.

Theresa's battle with leukemia took a happier turn after entering into a stem cell-based clinical trial.

Theresa’s battle with leukemia took a happier turn after entering into a stem cell-based clinical trial.

In the first few days of human development embryonic stem cells are a blank slate; they don’t yet have a special, defined role, but have potential. The potential to turn into the cells that make up our kidneys, heart, brain, every other organ and every tissue in our body. Because of this flexibility, stem cells have shown great promise as a way to regenerate dead, diseased or injured tissue to treat many life-threatening or chronic conditions.

But some studies have suggested a secret, darker side to stem cells—so-called cancer stem cells. Like their embryonic cousins, these cells have the ability to both self-renew— to divide and make more copies of themselves – and specialize into other cell types. Many researchers believe they can serve as a reservoir for cancer, constantly reinvigorating tumors, helping them spread throughout the body. To complicate matters, these slow-growing cells are often impervious to cancer therapies, enabling them to survive chemotherapy.

For Theresa Blanda, cancer stem cells were dragging her down a slippery slope towards disease and possibly death. In 2003, she was diagnosed with polycythemia vera (CV), which causes the body to produce too many red blood cells. As sometimes happens with CV patients, her body began producing too many white blood cells as well. Eventually, she developed an even more serious condition, myelofibrosis, a form of bone marrow scarring that results in an enlarged spleen, bone pain, knee swelling and other debilitating symptoms.

“You couldn’t even breathe my way or I’d bruise,” says Theresa. “I didn’t think I was going to make it.”

Her doctors wanted to do a bone marrow transplant, but were having difficulty finding the right donor. “Finally, I just asked if there was some kind of clinical trial that could help me,” says Theresa.

Fortunately, there was.

The Root Cause
At UC San Diego’s Moores Cancer Center, Catriona Jamieson, M.D., Ph.D., had made a discovery that would have a big impact on Theresa’s health. In research funded in part by CIRM, Jamieson found a key mutation in blood-forming stem cells. Specifically, a mutation in a gene called JAK2 was being passed on to Theresa’s entire blood system, causing CV and myelofibrosis. Without effective treatment, her condition could have progressed into acute myeloid leukemia, a blood cancer with a very poor survival rate.

“These malignant stem cells create an inhospitable environment for regular stem cells, suppressing normal blood formation,” says Jamieson. “We needed to get rid of these mutated stem cells so the normal ones could breathe a sigh of relief.”

The answer was a JAK2 inhibitor being developed by San Diego-based TargeGen. Though the trial had already started, they made room for Theresa and the results were amazing. Within weeks, her discomfort had faded, her spleen had returned to normal and she was back at work.

“In a month or two I was feeling pretty good,” says Theresa. “I could climb stairs and the swelling in my knee had gone down.”

She continued on the drug for five years but safety issues forced the trial to be suspended. But the work continues. With continued support from CIRM, Jamieson and others are investigating new JAK2 inhibitors, and other alternatives, to help myelofibrosis patients.

“Because of CIRM funding, we’ve managed to develop a number of agents that have gone into clinical trials,” says Jamieson. “That means patients have lived to hold their grandchildren, attend their mom’s hundredth birthday party and live fruitful lives.”

For more information about CIRM-funded leukemia research, visit our Leukemia Fact Sheet. You can read more about Theresa’s Story of Hope on our website.

September ICOC Boarding Meeting Begins Soon

The September ICOC Boarding Meeting begins this morning in Berkeley, CA.

The complete agenda can be found here, including a special Spotlight on Disease focusing on Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

For those not able to attend, feel free to dial in:

Dial in Infomation:

United States: (800) 230-1093
Access Code: 334835

WEB MEETING ACCESS INFORMATION:
——————————-
* https://www.webmeeting.att.com
* Meeting Number(s): 5114686455
* PARTICIPANT CODE: 313650

WEBEX LINK:
1. Go to https://cirm.webex.com/cirm/onstage/g.php?MTID=ef6aa60e45eb581e0e24ea4d2…
2. Click “Join Now”.

We will be providing a summary of the meeting’s highlights after the meeting—so stay tuned!

CIRM at Business of Personalized Medicine Summit

Exciting new technologies such as regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy are already at the forefront of a new era of medicine. And today, CIRM’s own Business Development Officer, Neil Littman, moderated a panel titled The Impact of Next Generation Personalized Medicine Technologies: How Disruptive Tech Continues to Advance the Industry, at the annual Business of Personalized Medicine Summit.

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The panel discussed the innovative technologies we have at our disposal today, and provided a glimpse into the future—highlighting promising therapies already in the clinic as well as technologies that may be available in 5 to 10 years. For example, Curt Herberts, Senior Director of Corporate Development & Strategy from Sangamo BioSciences, discussed Sangamo’s grant under CIRM’s Strategic Partnership II Award, which uses genome-editing technology for a one-time treatment for the blood disorder Beta-thalassemia.

Importantly, the panel delved into potential paradigm shifts in medical care that may arise as a result of these new technologies, and discussed how to translate these cutting-edge technologies into human clinical trials. Carlos Olguin, Head of Bio/nano/Programmable Matter Group, Autodesk and Dr. Kumar Sharma, who directs the Center for Renal Translational Medicine University of California, San Diego La Jolla, rounded out the panel.

Finally, Neil asked panel members to discuss the issues surrounding market adoption and the potential resistance to paradigm-shifting technologies, the final hurdle in the delivery of much-needed therapies to patients.

Stories of Hope: Diabetes

This week on The Stem Cellar we feature some of our most inspiring patients and patient advocates as they share, in their own words, their Stories of Hope.

The last thing Maria Torres expected was to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. She exercised, ate well and kept her weight under control. There had to be some mistake. Maria asked her doctor to repeat the tests, but the results were the same. At 43, for reasons no one could fully explain, she had diabetes, and her life was going to change dramatically.

Maria Torres' diabetes diagnoses was frightening—but she is hopeful that stem cell therapies could one day change how doctors treat this devastating condition.

Maria Torres’ diabetes diagnoses was frightening—but she is hopeful that stem cell therapies could one day change how doctors treat this devastating condition.

“It really scared me,” says Maria. “I thought I was going to die soon.”

That Maria doubted her diagnosis is no surprise. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, and she didn’t fit the profile. Most likely, some undiscovered genetic component had made her susceptible to the disease.

Regardless, she now had to rework her life to manage the diabetes. Her cells had developed a condition called insulin resistance. Though her pancreas was producing insulin, which tells cells to take in blood sugar, the cells were not cooperating. As a result, glucose was accumulating in her blood, putting her at risk for heart disease, nerve damage, eye issues and a host of other problems.

To help her cells absorb glucose, she needs regular insulin injections. Maria injects the hormone five times a day and must often measure her blood sugar levels even more frequently.

Faithfully following this regimen has kept her alive for 20 years, but insulin is not a cure. Even with the regular injections, she faces dramatic mood swings and more serious complications as glucose levels rise and fall.

Working for a Cure
One of the most promising strategies to cure diabetes is to transplant beta cells, which sense blood sugar levels and produce insulin to reduce them. Patients with type 1 diabetes would benefit because new beta cells would replace the ones they’d lost to disease. Type 2 patients, like Maria, could increase their body’s ability to produce insulin, lowering blood sugar levels and alleviating the need for injections.

With almost $40 million in funding from CIRM, a San Diego-based company named ViaCyte is working on this solution. They have spent years developing new methods to turn human embryonic stem cells into insulin-producing beta cells. It hasn’t been easy. Stem cells are promising because they can form any tissue. However, to make a specific type of cell, researchers must replicate the exact signals that transform a stem cell into a beta cell, rather than a neuron or muscle cell.

In 2008, the company succeeded, but with a clever twist. They created progenitor cells, one step shy of mature beta cells, and allowed them to finish developing in the body. In animal studies, the hardier progenitor cells survived the transplant process and, once mature, began producing insulin. The project has another innovation up its sleeve: these progenitor cells are first placed in a porous capsule, about the size of a credit card, before transplantation under the skin. This device allows transfer of blood sugar, insulin, oxygen, and other molecules but keeps cells out, thus avoiding the possible attack and rejection by the patient’s own immune system.

ViaCyte’s goal is to start clinical trials for type 1 diabetes by the end of 2014. But the company eventually hopes to also help those with type 2. Maria Torres is eager for them to succeed, both for herself and her family.

“I have three kids, and I know they could have the same thing I have,” says Maria. “If they find a cure, for me, that’s peace of mind.”

For more information about CIRM-funded diabetes research, visit our Diabetes Fact Sheet. You can read more about Maria’s Story of Hope on our website.