Building a Bridge to Therapies: Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Restore Feeling to Injured Limbs

It’s been a great week for spinal cord injury-related stem cell research – and it’s only Tuesday. In case you missed it, Asterias Biotherapeutics announced yesterday that they had treated their first clinical trial participant with an embryonic stem cell-based therapy for complete spinal cord injury. “Complete” refers to injuries that cause a total loss of feeling and movement below the site of injury.

Transplant human neurons (red) provide a bridge for the mice nerve fibers (green) to enter the spinal cord (spc). Image credit Hoeber et al. Scientific Reports

Transplanted human neurons (red) provide a bridge for the mice nerve fibers (green) to enter the spinal cord surface (spc). Image credit: Hoeber et al. Scientific Reports 5:10666

In another study also reported yesterday in Nature’s Scientific Reports, researchers at Uppsala University in Sweden made significant progress toward understanding and treating a related but different sort of injury that disrupts nerve signals coming into and out of the spinal cord. These so-called avulsion injuries are frequently seen after traffic, particularly motorcycle, accidents and lead to paralysis, loss of sensation, and chronic pain in the affected limbs. Although the ruptured nerve fibers from the limbs have the ability to extend back toward the spinal cord, inflammation from the site of injury makes the spinal cord impenetrable and blocks any restoration of normal sensory function.

To explore the potential of overcoming this spinal cord barrier, the research team transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons into mice mimicking human avulsion injury. Five months after the transplant, growth of nerve fibers into the spinal cord was seen. But these nerve fibers that had reconnected with the spinal cord were host animal cells and not the transplanted human stem cell-derived neurons. It turns out the human neuron fibers provide a physical bridge permitting the mouse nerve fibers to extend into the spinal cord. The human neurons also encourage this regrowth by releasing proteins that reduce the scar left by the injury and promote nerve fiber growth. The reconnected nerve fibers is an exciting result but did it have any impact on the animals? The answer is yes. Using standard behavior tests the team found that injured mice with the transplanted neurons had more sensitivity to touch stimulation and greater grip strength compared to untreated injured mice.

Because stem cells have the ability for unlimited growth, any future therapy based on these findings must shown that the transplant doesn’t lead to excessive cell growth. In an encouraging sign, no tumor formation or extreme growth of human neurons in the animals were observed.

Molecular Trick Diminishes Appearance of Scars, Stanford Study Finds

Every scar tells a story, but that story may soon be coming to a close, as new research from Stanford University reveals clues to why scars form—and offers clues on how scarring could become a thing of the past.

Reported last week in the journal Science, the research team pinpointed the type of skin cell responsible for scarring and, importantly, also identified a molecule that, when activated, can actually prevent the skin cells from forming a scar. As one of the study’s senior authors Michael Longaker explained in a press release, the biomedical burden of scarring is vast.

Scars, both internal and external, present a significant biomedical burden.

Scars, both internal and external, present a significant biomedical burden.

“About 80 million incisions a year in this country heal with a scar, and that’s just on the skin alone,” said Longaker, who also co-directs Stanford’s Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. “Internal scarring is responsible for many medical conditions, including liver cirrhosis, pulmonary fibrosis, intestinal adhesions and even the damage left behind after a heart attack.”

Scars are normally formed when a type of skin cell called a fibroblast secretes a protein called collagen at the injury site. Collagen acts like a biological Band-Aid that supports and stabilizes the damaged skin.

In this study, which was funded in part by a grant from CIRM, Longaker, along with co-first authors Yuval Rinkevich and Graham Walmsley, as well as co-senior author and Institute Director Irving Weissman, focused their efforts on a type of fibroblast that appeared to play a role in the earliest stages of wound healing.

This type of fibroblast stands out because it secretes a particular protein called engrailed, which initial experiments revealed was responsible for laying down layers of collagen during healing. In laboratory experiments in mouse embryos, the researchers labeled these so-called ‘engrailed-positive fibroblast cells,’ or EPF cells, with a green fluorescent dye. This helped the team track how the cells behaved as the mouse embryo developed.

Interestingly, these cells were also engineered to self-destruct—activated with the application of diphtheria toxin—so the team could monitor what would happen in the absence of EPF cells entirely.

Their results revealed strong evidence that EPF cells were critical for scar formation. The scarring process was so tied to these EPF cells that when the team administered the toxin to shut them down, scarring reduced significantly.

Six days later the team found continued differences between mice with deactivated EPF cells, and a group of controls. Indeed, the experimental group had repaired skin that more closely resembled uninjured skin, rather than the distinctive scarring pattern that normally occurs.

Further examination of EPF cells’ precise function revealed a protein called CD26 and that blocking EPF’s production of CD26 had the same effect as shutting off EPF cells entirely. Wounds treated with a CD26 inhibitor had scars that covered only 5% of the original injury site, as opposed to 30%.

Pharmaceutical companies Merck and Novartis have already manufactured two types of CD26 inhibitor, originally developed to treat Type II diabetes, which could be modified to block CD26 production during wound healing—a prospect that the research team is examining more closely.

I Sing the Bioelectric: Long-Distance Electrical Signals Guide Cell Growth and Repair

Genes turn on, and genes turn off. Again and again, the genes that together comprise the human genome receive electrical signals that can direct when they should be active—and when they should be dormant. This intricate pattern of signals is a part of what guides an embryonic stem cell to grow and mature into any one of the many types of cells that make up the human body.

Bioelectric signals sent between cells—even cells at great distance from each other—have been found to carry important instructions relating to the growth, development and repair of organs such as the brain.

Bioelectric signals sent between cells—even cells at great distance from each other—have been found to carry important instructions relating to the growth, development and repair of organs such as the brain.

These electrical signals that guide cell growth have long been described as molecular ‘switches.’ But now, scientists at Tufts University have decoded these electrical signals—and discovered that they are far more complex than we had ever imagined.

Reporting in today’s issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, lead author Michael Levin and his Tufts research team have mapped the electrical signals transmitted between cells during development, and found that not only do these signals direct when a gene should be switched on, they also carry their own set of instructions, crucial to cellular development. Using the example of brain formation, Levin explained in today’s news release:

“We’ve found that cells communicate, even across long distances in the embryo, using bioelectrical signals, and they use this information to know where to form a brain and how big that brain should be. The signals are not just necessary for normal development; they are instructive.”

Instead of a molecular switchboard, an analogy that some have used to describe these bioelectrical signals, Levin likened the system to a computer. The signals themselves act like software programs, delivering instructions and information between cells at precisely the right time—even cells at great distance from one another.

Using tadpole embryos as a model, the team identified that the pattern of changes in voltage levels between cell membranes, called cellular resting potential, is the source of these bioelectrical signals, which are crucial to cellular development.

Specifically, the team mapped the changing voltage levels in embryonic stem cells in regards to the formation of the brain. In addition to discovering that these bioelectric signals instruct the formation of organs such as the brain, their discovery also hints at how scientists could manipulate these signals to repair tissues or organs that have been damaged—or even to grow new, healthy tissues.

“This latest research also demonstrated molecular techniques for ‘hijacking’ this bioelectric communication to force the body to make new brain tissue at other locations and to fix genetic defects that cause brain malformation,” Levin explained. “This means we may be able to induce growth of new brain tissue to address birth defects or injury, which is very exciting for regenerative medicine.”

In addition, the authors argue that modifying the bioelectrical signals to generate tissue—rather than modifying the genes themselves—may reduce the risk of adverse effects that may crop up by modifying genes directly.

While it’s early days for this work, Levin and his team foresee ways to apply this knowledge directly to medicine, for example by developing electricity-modulating drugs—which they call ‘electroceuticals’—that can repair damaged or defective tissue, and induce tissue growth.

Stay on Target: Scientists Create Chemical ‘Homing Devices’ that Guide Stem Cells to Final Destination

When injecting stem cells into a patient, how do the cells know where to go? How do they know to travel to a specific damage site, without getting distracted along the way?

Scientists are now discovering that, in some cases they do but in many cases, they don’t. So engineers have found a way to give stem cells a little help.

As reported in today’s Cell Reports, engineers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) in Boston, along with scientists at the pharmaceutical company Sanofi, have identified a suite of chemical compounds that can help the stem cells find their way.

Researchers identified a small molecule that can be used to program stem cells (blue and green) to home in on sites of damage. [Credit: Oren Levy, Brigham and Women's Hospital]

Researchers identified a small molecule that can be used to program stem cells (blue and green) to home in on sites of damage. [Credit: Oren Levy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital]

“There are all kinds of techniques and tools that can be used to manipulate cells outside the body and get them into almost anything we want, but once we transplant cells we lose complete control over them,” said Jeff Karp, the paper’s co-senior author, in a news release, highlighting just how difficult it is to make sure the stem cells reach their destination.

So, Karp and his team—in collaboration with Sanofi—began to screen thousands of chemical compounds, known as small molecules, that they could physically attach to the stem cells prior to injection and that could guide the cells to the appropriate site of damage. Not unlike a molecular ‘GPS.’

Starting with more than 9,000 compounds, the Sanofi team narrowed down the candidates to just six. They then used a microfluidic device—a microscope slide with tiny glass channels designed to mimic human blood vessels. Stem cells pretreated with the compound Ro-31-8425 (one of the most promising of the six) stuck to the sides. An indication, says the team, Ro-31-8425 might help stem cells home in on their target.

But how would these pre-treated cells fare in animal models? To find out, Karp enlisted the help of Charles Lin, an expert in optical imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital. First, the team injected the pre-treated cells into mouse models each containing an inflamed ear. Then, using Lin’s optical imaging techniques, they tracked the cells’ journey. Much to their excitement, the cells went immediately to the site of inflammation—and then they began to repair the damage.

According to Oren Levy, the study’s co-first author, these results are especially encouraging because they point to how doctors may someday soon deliver much-needed stem cell therapies to patients:

“There’s a great need to develop strategies that improve the clinical impact of cell-based therapies. If you can create an engineering strategy that is safe, cost effective and simple to apply, that’s exactly what we need to achieve the promise of cell-based therapy.”

Scientists Send Rodents to Space; Test New Therapy to Prevent Bone Loss

In just a few months, 40 very special rodents will embark upon the journey of a lifetime.

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Today UCLA scientists are announcing the start of a project that will test a new therapy that has the potential to slow, halt or even reverse bone loss due to disease or injury.

With grant funding from the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS), a team of stem cell scientists led by UCLA professor of orthopedic surgery Chia Soo will send 40 rodents to the International Space Station (ISS). Living under microgravity conditions for two months, these rodents will begin to undergo bone loss—thus closely mimicking the conditions of bone loss, known as osteoporosis, seen in humans back on Earth.

At that point, the rodents will be injected with a molecule called NELL-1. Discovered by Soo’s UCLA colleague Kang Ting, this molecule has been shown in early tests to spur bone growth. In this new set of experiments on the ISS, the researchers hope to test the ability of NELL-1 to spur bone growth in the rodents.

The team is optimistic that NELL-1 could really be key to transforming how doctors treat bone loss. Said Ting in a news release:

“NELL-1 holds tremendous hope, not only for preventing bone loss but one day even restoring healthy bone. For patients who are bed-bound and suffering from bone loss, it could be life-changing.”

“Besides testing the limits of NELL-1’s robust bone-producing efforts, this mission will provide new insights about bone biology and could uncover important clues for curing diseases such as osteoporosis,” added Ben Wu, a UCLA bioengineer responsible for initially modifying NELL-1 to make it useful for treating bone loss.

The UCLA team will oversee ground operations while the experiments will be performed by NASA scientists on the ISS and coordinated by CASIS.

These experiments are important not only for developing new therapies to treat gradual bone loss, such as osteoporosis, which normally affects the elderly, but also those who have bone loss due to trauma or injury—including bone loss due to extended microgravity conditions, a persistent problem for astronauts living on the ISS. Said Soo:

“This research has enormous translational application for astronauts in space flight and for patients on Earth who have osteoporosis or other bone-loss problems from disease, illness or trauma.”

UC Davis Surgeons Begin Clinical Trial that Tests New Way to Deliver Stem Cells; Heal Bone Fractures

Each year, approximately 8.9 million people worldwide will suffer a bone fracture. Many of these fractures heal with the help of traditional methods, but for some, the road to recovery is far more difficult.

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After exhausting traditional treatments—such as surgically implanted pins or plates, bed rest and injections to spur bone growth—these patients can undergo a special type of stem cell transplant that directs stem cells extracted from the bone marrow to the fracture site to speed healing.

This procedure has its drawbacks, however. For example, the act of extracting cells from one’s own bone marrow and then injecting them into the fracture site requires two very painful surgical procedures: one to extract the cells, and another to implant them. Recovery times for each procedure, especially in older patients, can be significant.

Enter a team of surgeons at UC Davis. Who last week announced a ‘proof-of-concept’ clinical trial to test a device that can extract and isolate stem cells far more efficiently than before—and allow surgeons to implant the cells into the fracture in just a single surgery.

As described in HealthCanal, he procedure makes use of a reamer-irrigator-aspirator system, or RIA, that normally processes wastewater during bone drilling surgery. As its name implies, this wastewater was thought to be useless. But recent research has revealed that it is chock-full of stem cells.

The problem was that the stem cells were so diluted within the wastewater that they couldn’t be used. Luckily, a device recently developed by Sacramento-based SynGen, Inc., was able to quickly and efficiently extract the cells in high-enough concentrations to then be implanted into the patient. Instead of having to undergo two procedures—the patient now only has to undergo one.

“The device’s small size and rapid capabilities allow autologous stem cell transplantation to take place during a single operation in the operation room rather than requiring two procedures separated over a period of weeks,” said UC Davis surgeon Mark Lee, who is leading the clinical trial. “This is a dramatic difference that promises to make a real impact on healing and patient recovery.”

Hear more from Lee about how stem cells can be used to heal bone fractures in our 2012 Spotlight on Disease.

Multitasking molecule repairs damaged nerve cells, scientists discover in ‘stunning’ research breakthrough

Every molecule in the body has a job to do—everything from maintaining healthy cell functions to removing dead or decaying cells requires a coordinated series of molecular switches to complete. There’s a lot we know about what these molecules do, but even more that we are still discovering.

The PSR-1 molecule, which normally clears out dead or dying nerve cells, has also been observed trying to repair them.

The PSR-1 molecule, which normally clears out dead or dying nerve cells, has also been observed trying to repair them.

And as reported in a pair of studies published this week in Nature and Nature Communications, a molecule that has long been known to clear out dying or damaged nerve cells also—amazingly—tries to heal them.

The molecule at the heart of these studies is called phophatidylserine receptor, or PSR-1 for short. PSR-1’s main job had been to target and remove cells that were dead or dying—a sort of cellular ‘cleanup crew.’

Some cells die because they’ve reached the end of their life cycle and are scheduled for destruction, a programmed cell death known as apoptosis. Other cells die because they have been damaged by disease or injury. In this study, scientists at the University of Colorado, Boulder and the University of Queensland (UQ) in Brisbane, Australia, discovered that not only does PSR-1 clear out dead cells, it tries to save the ones that haven’t quite kicked the bucket.

Specifically, the team observed PSR-1 literally reconnecting nerve fibers, known as axons, which had broken due to injury.

“I would call this an unexpected and somewhat stunning finding,” said one of the study’s lead authors Ding Xue in a news release. “This is the first time a molecule involved in apoptosis has been found to have the ability to repair severed axons, and we believe it has great therapeutic potential.”

Professor Ding Xue of the University of Colorado Boulder. [Credit: Casey A. Cass, University of Colorado]

Professor Ding Xue of the University of Colorado Boulder. [Credit: Casey A. Cass, University of Colorado]

Injuries to nerve cells that reside in the brain or spinal cord are particularly distressing because once damaged, the cells can’t be repaired. As a result, many research groups have looked to innovative ways of coaxing the cells to repair themselves. Xue and Hilliard see the potential of PSR-1 to be involved in such a strategy.

“This will open new avenues to try and exploit this knowledge in other systems closer to human physiology and hopefully move toward solving injuries,” said Hilliard.

The discovery of PSR-1’s role in axon repair is based off a key difference between cells undergoing programmed cell death and those that are dying due to injury.

During apoptosis, cells release a beacon to alert PSR-1 that they’re ready for removal. But when a nerve cell is injured, it sends out a distress signal. Explained Xue:

“The moment there is a cut to the nerve cell we see…a signal to PSR-1 molecules in the other part of the nerve that essentially says ‘I am in danger, come and save me.’”

While these experiments were performed in the model organism C. elegans (a small worm often used in this sort of research), the researchers are optimistic that a similar process is taking place in human nerve cells.

“Whether human PSR has the capacity to repair injured axons is still unknown. But I think our new research findings will spur a number of research groups to chase this question.”

Stem Cell Stories that Caught Your Eye: The Most Popular Stem Cellar Stories of 2014

2014 marked an extraordinary year for regenerative medicine and for CIRM. We welcomed a new president, several of our research programs have moved into clinical trials—and our goal of accelerating treatments for patients in need is within our grasp.

As we look back we’d like to revisit The Stem Cellar’s ten most popular stories of 2014. We hope you enjoyed reading them as much as we did reporting them. And from all of us here at the Stem Cell Agency we wish you a Happy Holidays and New Year.

10. UCSD Team Launches CIRM-Funded Trial to Test Safety of New Leukemia Drug

9. Creating a Genetic Model for Autism, with a Little Help from the Tooth Fairy

8. A Tumor’s Trojan Horse: CIRM Researchers Build Nanoparticles to Infiltrate Hard-to-Reach Tumors

7. CIRM funded therapy for type 1 diabetes gets FDA approval for clinical trial

6. New Videos: Living with Crohn’s Disease and Working Towards a Stem Cell Therapy

5. Creativity Program Students Reach New Heights with Stem Cell-Themed Rendition of “Let it Go”

4. Scientists Reach Yet Another Milestone towards Treating Type 1 Diabetes

3. Meet the Stem Cell Agency President C. Randal Mills

2. Truth or Consequences: how to spot a liar and what to do once you catch them

1. UCLA team cures infants of often-fatal “bubble baby” disease by inserting gene in their stem cells; sickle cell disease is next target

Stem cells and professional sports: a call for more science and less speculation

In the world of professional sports, teams invest tens of millions of dollars in players. Those players are under intense pressure to show a return on that investment for the team, and that means playing as hard as possible for as long as possible. So it’s no surprise that players facing serious injuries will often turn to any treatment that might get them back in the game.

image courtesy Scientific American

image courtesy Scientific American

A new study published last week in 2014 World Stem Cell Report (we blogged about it here) highlighted how far some players will go to keep playing, saying at least 12 NFL players have undergone unproven stem cell treatments in the last five years. A session at the recent World Stem Cell Summit in San Antonio, Texas showed that football is not unique, that this is a trend in all professional sports.

Dr. Shane Shapiro, an orthopedic surgeon at the Mayo Clinic, says it was an article in the New York Times in 2009 about two of the NFL players named in the World Stem Cell Report that led him to becoming interested in stem cells. The article focused on two members of the Pittsburgh Steelers team who were able to overcome injuries and play in the Super Bowl after undergoing stem cell treatment, although there was no direct evidence the stem cells caused the improvement.

“The next day, the day after the article appeared, I had multiple patients in my office with copies of the New York Times asking if I could perform the same procedure on them.”

Dr. Shapiro had experienced what has since become one of the driving factors behind many people seeking stem cell therapies, even ones that are unproven; the media reports high profile athletes getting a treatment that seems to work leading many non-athletes to want the same.

“This is not just about high profile athletes it’s also about older patients, weekend warriors and all those with degenerative joint disease, which affects around 50 million Americans. Currently for a lot of these degenerative conditions we don’t have many good non- surgical options, basically physical therapy, gentle pain relievers or steroid injections. That’s it. We have to get somewhere where we have options to slow down this trend, to slow down the progression of these injuries and problems.”

Shapiro says one of the most popular stem cell-based approaches in sports medicine today is the use of plasma rich platelets or PRP. The idea behind it makes sense, at least in theory. Blood contains platelets that contain growth factors that have been shown to help tissue heal. So injecting a patient’s platelets into the injury site might speed recovery and, because it’s the patient’s own platelets, the treatment probably won’t cause any immune response or prove to be harmful.

That’s the theory. The problem is few well-designed clinical trials have been done to see if that’s actually the case. Shapiro talked about one relatively small, non-randomized study that used PRP and in a 14-month follow-up found that 83% of patients reported feeling satisfied with their pain relief. However, 84% of this group did not have any visible improved appearance on ultrasound.

He is now in the process of carrying out a clinical trial, approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), using bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) cells harvested from the patient’s own bone marrow. Because those cells secrete growth factors such as cytokines and chemokines they hope they may have anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. The cells will be injected into 25 patients, all of whom have arthritic knees. They hope to have results next year.

Dr. Paul Saenz is a sports medicine specialist and the team physician for the San Antonio Spurs, the current National Basketball Association champions. He says that sports teams are frequently criticized for allowing players to undergo unproven stem cell treatments but he says it’s unrealistic to expect teams to do clinical studies to see if these therapies work, that’s not their area of expertise. But he also says team physicians are very careful in what they are willing to try.

“As fervent as we are to help bring an athlete back to form, we are equally fervent in our desire not to harm a $10 million athlete. Sports physicians are very conservative and for them stem cells are never the first thing they try, they are options when other approaches have failed.”

Saenz said while there are not enough double blind, randomized controlled clinical trials he has seen many individual cases, anecdotal evidence, where the use of stem cells has made a big difference. He talked about one basketball player, a 13-year NBA veteran, who was experiencing pain and mobility problems with his knee. He put the player on a biologic regimen and performed a PRP procedure on the knee.

“What we saw over the next few years was decreased pain, and a dramatic decrease in his reliance on non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. We saw improved MRI findings, improved athletic performance with more time on court, more baskets and more rebounds.”

But Saenz acknowledges that for the field to advance anecdotal stories like this are not enough, well-designed clinical trials are needed. He says right now there is too much guesswork in treatments, that there is not even any agreement on best practices or standardized treatment protocols.

Dr. Shapiro says for too long the use of stem cells in sports medicine has been the realm of individual physicians or medical groups. That has to change:

“If we are ever to move forward on this it has to be opened up to the scientific community, we have to do the work, do the studies, complete the analysis, open it up to our peers, report it in a reputable journal. If we want to treat the 50 million Americans who need this kind of therapy we need to go through the FDA approval process. We can’t just continue to treat the one patient a month who can afford to pay for all this themselves. “

Stem Cell Stories that Caught our Eye: Stem Cell Summit Roundup, Spinal Cords in a Dish and Stem Cell Tourism in the NFL

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Success at the World Stem Cell Summit. This week some of the biggest names in regenerative medicine descended upon San Antonio, Texas for the annual summit. Along with researchers from the world’s top universities, institutions and companies were members of CIRM, including CIRM President and CEO C. Randall Mills.

We’ve been publishing top highlights from the Summit all week here on the Stem Cellar. There’s also been detailed coverage in the local San Antonio press, including the local ABC station. And if you’d like to find out more about this year’s conference, be sure to visit @WSCSummit and #WSC14 on Twitter.

Scientists have found a way to grow spinal cords from embryonic stem cells in a petri dish. [Credit: Abigail Tucker/ MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology/ Wellcome Images.]

Scientists have found a way to grow spinal cords from embryonic stem cells in a petri dish. [Credit: Abigail Tucker/ MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology/ Wellcome Images.]

Growing Spinal Cords in the Lab. Tissue engineering, the process of using stem cells to build new tissues and organs, has been the Holy Grail for regenerative medicine. And while there has been some progress with engineering some organs, others—especially the spinal cord—have proven far more difficult. This is because the biodegradable scaffolding cannot be made correctly to grow complex and intricately connected nerve cells.

But now, a research team in Germany has grown complete spinal cords in the lab, pointing to a new strategy for treating those with irreparable spinal cord injuries.

As reported in The Guardian this week, Andrea Meinhardt of the Dresden University of Technology and her colleagues worked around the problem of scaffolding by employing a new method called self-directed morphogenesis, first developed by the late Yoshiki Sasai. According to The Guardian‘s Mo Costandi:

“Self-directed morphogenesis is a method for growing embryonic stem cells in a three-dimensional suspension. Cells grown in this way can, when fed the right combination of signaling molecules, go through the motions of development and organize themselves to form complex tissues such as eyes, glands and bits of brain.”

While preliminary, this research offers immense promise towards the ultimate goal: reversing the devastating effects of spinal cord injuries.

Stem Cells and the NFL. Despite the best efforts of experts, stem cell tourism continues to proliferate. A new study published this week in 2014 World Stem Cell Report (a special supplement to Stem Cells and Development) describes the latest example of people seeking unproven stem cell treatments: this time in the NFL.

New research from Rice University is suggesting that some NFL players are seeking out unproven stem cell treatments—oftentimes traveling abroad without fully understanding the risks. This poses serious problems not only for players but also for the NFL as a whole. As Co-lead author Kirsten Matthews elaborated in a news release:

“With the rise of new and unproven stem cell treatments, the NFL faces a daunting task of trying to better understand and regulate the use of these therapies in order to protect the health of its players.”

Specifically, 12 NFL players are known to have received unproven treatments at some point during the last five years, including star quarterback Peyton Manning who we’ve blogged about before The authors caution that high-profile players broadcasting that they are receiving these unproven therapies could influence regular patients who are also desperate for cures.

In order to fix this growing problem, the authors recommend the NFL review and investigate these unproven stem cell treatments with the help of an independent committee of medical professionals. Finally, they suggest that the NFL could support stem cell research here in the United States—so that proven, effective stem cell-based treatments could more quickly enter the clinic.