Stem cell stories that caught our eye: Prostate cancer and BPA, mini organs and diabetes trial

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Latest mini-organ, a prostate, fingers BPA. A team at the University of Illinois, at Chicago, has added the prostate gland to the growing list of “organoids” that have been grown from stem cells in the lab. The tiny gland that produces semen in men has an unusually high rate of cancer compared to other organs. Prior research has linked that cancerous nature to exposure to the hormone estrogen during fetal growth, including synthetic estrogen mimics like the chemical BPA (bisphenol A) found in many plastics.

Unlike the other organs associated with male gender, which form very early in fetal development, the prostate develops later when stem cells’ roles are more narrowly defined to creating specific tissues. The team, led by Gail Prins, had previously shown that prostate stem cells grown in the presence of BPA formed cells more likely to show signs of cancer. But that did not allow them to determine what really triggered the increase in cancer. So, they decided to grow mini prostates and look at all the cells as they developed in the organoid.

“What we were doing originally with the human prostate stem cells is we were mixing and growing them in vivo,” Prins told Medical Daily. “The idea to generate this organoid came from the first author, Esther Calderon-Gierszal; she was my graduate student. ‘They’ve done it for other organs,’ she thought. ‘Let’s try it for a prostate.’”

The researchers pushed embryonic stem cells to grow into the several different tissues found in a prostate gland using a cocktail of hormones. Although much smaller than a normal prostate the cells did self-organize into structures that resembled the gland. When they grew the organoid in the presence of BPA they found an unusually large number of prostate specific stem cells. So, it appears just the increased number of stem cells increases the likelihood a few will go bad and form cancer.

A round up of all the mini-organs. The journal Nature has written a very accessible wrap up in its news section on all the various organs that have been simulated in a lab dish since a Japanese team reported the phenomenon for the first time in 2008. After a fun lead-in explaining the science, Cassandra Willyard runs through what has been accomplished so far in the stomach, kidney, and liver.

Part of a miniature stomach grown in the lab, stained to reveal various cells found in normal human stomachs [Credit: Kyle McCracken]

Part of a miniature stomach grown in the lab, stained to reveal various cells found in normal human stomachs [Credit: Kyle McCracken]

The fun in the opening section comes from the fact that given the right environment, stem cells are pretty darn good at self-organizing into the multiple tissue types that become a specific organ. So much so, that the early teams that saw it in the lab were shocked and did not at first know what they had.

Willyard starts with quotes from Madeline Lancaster, a post-doctoral fellow in a lab at the Institute for Molecular Biotechnology in Vienna, Austria. She found milky looking spheres in the lab cultures and when she cut into them she found multiple types of nerves. So she grabbed her mentor and reported:

“I’ve got something amazing. You’ve got to see it.”

She also discusses the work that led Hans Clevers, a researcher at Hubrecht Institute in Utrecht, the Netherlands, to report the creation of mini-guts in 20009. They grew the cells in a gel that resembled the structure that naturally surrounds cells. In this “at-home” environment stem cells formed much more complex tissue than he had hoped.

“The structures, to our total astonishment, looked like real guts,” Clevers said. “They were beautiful.”

The author also lets Clevers talk about taking his work the next step, using the gut organoids to screen for drugs for related diseases. If you have been following this work, Willyard’s piece is a must read.

Second clinical trial site for diabetes. Opening multiple clinical trial sites accelerates the process of determining whether a new therapy is safe and effective. So we were thrilled to get the announcement from ViaCyte that they would begin enrolling patients at a second location for the diabetes trial we helped them launch by funding the first clinical trial site at the University of California, San Diego.

That trial uses pancreatic cells grown from embryonic stem cells that are protected from immune attack by a semi-permeable pouch. The second site, at the University of Alberta Hospitals in Edmonton, Canada, is being funded in part by Alberta Innovates as well as by the JDRF Canadian Clinical Trials Network. JDRF also helps support the San Diego trial through its US office.

The lead researcher for the Alberta trial, James Shapiro, developed the procedure for transplanting pancreatic tissue from cadavers that became known as “the Edmonton Protocol.” That protocol has changed many lives, but because it requires life-long immunosuppression, doctors only recommend it for the most severe diabetics. The small number of donor pancreases also limits its use. Shapiro commented about the value and need for something like the ViaCyte therapy in a company press release picked up by Yahoo Finance, and dozens of other sites:

“The fact remains that new treatments are sorely needed, not only for the high risk patients but for all patients suffering from this life-altering disease.  The remarkable promise of the (ViaCyte) product candidate is that a virtually limitless source of appropriate human cells can be transplanted without the need for lifetime immunosuppression.”

Global stem cell market predicted to reach $40 billion in five years, even bigger when mixed with new technologies

The global consulting firm Frost and Sullivan held a webinar yesterday in which they noted health care systems everywhere are facing an increasing challenge of costly chronic care. They suggested health care providers have started to embrace regenerative medicine as a viable alternative.

Because of its power to change the course of disease, the consultants called regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapies in particular, a new paradigm in human health.

“Regenerative Medicine initiatives are now attracting new public and private funding,” said the firm’s Jane Andrews in a widely picked up press release, including this post at CNBC. “Although Stem Cell Therapy will continue to be the largest market segment of Regenerative Medicine, cross segment therapies that combine the use of immunology, genetic and stem cell therapy are rapidly advancing,”

CIRM funds projects in all these technologies so it is always nice to see others joining the fight. We recently posted a series of stories about our portfolio of clinical trials that combine cell therapy and gene therapy.

The report predicts the global stem cell therapy market will reach $40 billion in five years by 2020. It also suggests that just the US market will reach $180 billion by 2030.

The firm does raise a cautionary note about the inadequacy of funding for early stage clinical work with these therapies. Our President and CEO Randall Mills has also raised an alarm about this issue and called on industry to increase its support for this work.

Organized by the Asia-Pacific branch of Frost and Sullivan the webinar breaks out the markets for Japan, Korea and Singapore. The webinar itself is available on line.

Cranking up stem cell production for when therapies are approved for widespread use

Getting a cell therapy from the research bench to patients requires leaping many hurdles. Perhaps two of the highest arise when proving the potential therapy is safe enough to begin clinical trials and then when scaling up production to meet the demand of thousands of patients.

Scale up to producing the 100s of billions of cells needed to treat large groups of patients could be a roadblock for therapies.

Scale up to producing the 100s of billions of cells needed to treat large groups of patients could be a roadblock for therapies.

An even dozen CIRM-funded projects have made it over the first hurdle. No doubt those teams have begun planning for that last big jump, but in reality, in most cases the processes needed to make cells for a dozen or a few dozen patients in early trials don’t generally scale to the thousands. When you look at the number of cells needed for one heart repair, for example, around five billion, the numbers are mind bending.

Many organizations focus on this issue as their main goal looking for platforms that can help scale up production for cell therapies across many different diseases. A team at the University of Nottingham in England recently reported results from a $3.6 million project that seems to have created a sizeable piece of the solution. They developed a fully synthetic substrate, which has no chance for contamination, that can grow cells by the billion, both stem cells and the more mature cells normally desired for transplant into patients.

“The possibilities for regenerative medicine are still being researched in the form of clinical trials,” said the project leader Morgan Alexander in a university press release posted by ScienceDaily. “What we are doing here is paving the way for the manufacture of stem cells in large numbers when those therapies are proved to be safe and effective.”

The research team used a high throughput lab technique to test many materials until they finally arrived at the one they reported in the journal Advance Materials.

Stem cell stories that caught our eye: fixing defects we got from mom, lung repair and staunching chronic nerve pain

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Two ways to clean up mitochondrial defects. Every student gets it drilled into them that we get half our genes from mom and half from dad, but that is not quite right. Mom’s egg contains a few genes outside the nucleus in the so-called powerhouse of the cell, the mitochondria that we inherit only from mom. The 13 little genes in that tiny organelle that are responsible for energy use can wreak havoc when they are mutated. Now, a multi-center team working in Oregon and California has developed two different ways to create stem cells that match the DNA of specific patients in everyway except those defective mitochondrial genes.

The various mitochondrial mutations tend to impact one body system more than others. The end goal for the current research is to turn those stem cells into healthy tissue that can be transplanted into the area most impacted by the disease in a specific patient. That remains some years away, but this is a huge step in providing therapies for this group of diseases.

Currently, we have two ways of making stem cells that match the DNA of a patient, which hopefully result in transplantable cells that can avoid immune rejection. One is to reprogram adult tissue into induced pluripotent (iPS type) stem cells and the other uses the techniques called Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), often called therapeutic cloning. The current research did both.

The team converted the SCNT stem cells into various needed tissues such as these nerve precursor cells.

The team converted the SCNT stem cells into various needed tissues such as these nerve precursor cells.

The iPS work relied on the fact that our tissues are mosaics because of the way mitochondria get passed on when cells divide. So not all cells show mitochondrial mutations in people with “mito disease” —how impacted families tend to refer to it, as I found out through a distant cousin with a child valiantly struggling with one form of the disease. Because each iPS stem cell line arises from one cell, the researchers could do DNA analysis on each cell line and sort for ones with few or no mutations, resulting in healthy stem cells, which could become healthy transplant tissue.

But for some patients, there are just too many mutations. For those the researchers inserted the DNA from the patient into a healthy donor egg containing healthy mitochondria using SCNT. The result: again healthy stem cells.

“To families with a loved one born with a mitochondrial disease waiting for a cure, today we can say that a cure is on the horizon,” explained co-senior author Shoukhrat Mitalipov at the Oregon Stem Cell Center in a story in Genetic Engineering News. “This critical first step toward treating these diseases using gene therapy will put us on the path to curing them and unlike unmatched tissue or organ donations, combined gene and cell therapy will allow us to create the patients’ own healthy tissue that will not be rejected by their bodies.”

ScienceDaily ran the Oregon press release, HealthCanal ran the press release from the Salk Institute in La Jolla home of the other co-senior author Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, whose lab CIRM funds for other projects. And Reuters predictably did a piece with a bit more focus on the controversy around cloning. Nature published the research paper on Wednesday.

Stem cells to heal damaged lungs. Lung doctors dealing with emphysema, cystic fibrosis and other lung damage may soon take a page from the playbook of cancer doctors who transplant bone marrow stem cells. A team at Israel’s Weizmann Institute has tested a similar procedure in mice with damaged lungs and saw improved lung function

Transplanted lung cells continued to grow at six weeks (left) and 16 weeks (right).

Transplanted lung cells continued to grow at six weeks (left) and 16 weeks (right).

Stem cells are homebodies. They tend to hang out in their own special compartments we call the stem cell niche, and if infused elsewhere in the body will return home to the niche. Bone marrow transplants make use of that tendency in two ways. Doctors wipe out the stem cells in the niche so that there is room there when stem cells previously harvested from the patient or donor cells are infused after therapy.

The Weizmann team did this in the lungs by developing a method to clear out the lung stem cell niche and isolating a source of stem cells capable of generating new lung tissue that could be infused. They now need to perfect both parts of the procedure. ScienceDaily ran the institute’s press release.

Stem cells for chronic pain due to nerve damage. Neuropathy, damaged nerves caused by diabetes, chemotherapy or injury tends to cause pain that resists treatment. A team at Duke University in North Carolina has shown that while a routine pain pill might provide relief for a few hours, a single injection of stem cells provided relief for four to five weeks—in mice.

They used a type of stem cell found in bone marrow known to have anti-inflammatory properties called Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs). They infused the cells directly into the spinal cavity in mice that had induced nerve damage. They found that one chemical released by the stem cells, TGF Beta1, was present in the spinal fluid of the treated animals at higher than normal levels. This finding becomes a target for further research to engineer the BMSCs so that they might be even better at relieving pain. ScienceNewsline picked up the Duke press release about the research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Giving stem cells the right physical cues produced micro hearts, maybe a tool to avoid birth defects

Heart defects, one of the leading types of birth defects, often result from drugs mom is taking, but we have not had a good model of developing fetal hearts to test drugs for these side effects. Now, a team at the University of California, Berkeley and the Gladstone Institutes has created micro heart chambers in a lab dish by providing the starting stem cells with the right physical cues. And they found these mini-hearts can predict birth defects.

Different types of cells required to make functioning heart tissue show up as different colors here.

Different types of cells required to make functioning heart tissue show up as different colors here.

As we have written before, it takes a neighborhood to raise a stem cell into a wanted adult cell. While most lab cultures maturing stem cells into adult tissue are flat, the developing fetal heart grows in an environment with many physical cues, both chemical and pressure. The Berkeley team added a chemical layer to the cell culture dish and etched it to provide added physical cues. The result produced both connective tissue and heart muscle that were organized into micro heart chambers that could beat.

“We believe it is the first example illustrating the process of a developing human heart chamber in vitro,” said Kevin Healy, co-senior author of the study at UC Berkeley. “This technology could help us quickly screen for drugs likely to generate cardiac birth defects, and guide decisions about which drugs are dangerous during pregnancy.”

The team took the added step of testing a drug known to cause birth defects, thalidomide. When the stem cells were growing with the drug added to the culture, they did not develop into the same micro chambers.

The Berkeley bioengineers started with stem cells reprogrammed from adult skin tissue in the CIRM-funded lab of Bruce Conklin at the Gladstone, the other co-senior author on the paper. These iPS-type stem cells were essential to the project.

“The fact that we used patient-derived human pluripotent stem cells in our work represents a sea change in the field,” said Healy. “Previous studies of cardiac micro-tissues primarily used harvested rat cardiomyocytes, which is an imperfect model for human disease.”

 

Berkeley issued a press release on the work and Popular Science wrote a piece on it complete with a fun embedded video of the beating tissue. The journal Nature Communication ran the original research publication today.

Two studies show genes and their switches critical to brain cancer’s resistance to therapy

Two California teams discovered genetic machinery that cancer stem cells in high-grade brain cancers use to evade therapy. One CIRM-funded team at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles pinpointed a family of genes that turn off other genes that chemotherapy targets —effectively hiding them from the chemo. The other team at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), found a culprit switch among the molecules that surround genes in the DNA.

Chemical switches like those found at UCSD control much of how our cells function. These so called epigenetic markers can toggle between on and off states and result in two cells with the same genes behaving differently. That is what the San Diego team found when they transplanted cells from the same glioblastoma brain cancer into different mice. Some readily formed new tumors and some did not.

“One of the most striking findings in our study is that there are dynamic and reversible transitions between tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic states in glioblastoma that are determined by epigenetic regulation,” said senior author Clark Chen. “This plasticity represents a mechanism by which glioblastoma develops resistance to therapy.”

The switch the cancer stem cells used in this case is called LSD1 and the researchers hope to be able to learn how to manipulate that switch to make the brain cancer stem cells more vulnerable to therapy.

Brain caner cells (left) that don’t readily form new tumors can spontaneously acquire cancer stem cell characteristics (right).

Brain caner cells (left) that don’t readily form new tumors can spontaneously acquire cancer stem cell characteristics (right).

The family of genes fingered by the Cedars team control the on-off status of a number of genes associated with cancer stem cells. That family, called Ets factors, is quite large but the brain tumor model used by the team allows them to quickly determine which genes are being impacted by the Ets factors.

“The ability to rapidly model unique combinations of driver mutations from a patient’s tumor enhances our quest to create patient-specific animal models of human brain tumors,” said Moise Danielpour the senior author on the study

The team’s next step: testing the function of the various Ets factors to see what their specific roles are in tumor progression.

Given the dismal five-year survival rate for high-grade brain cancers these advances in understanding their genetic machinery should push the field toward better therapy.

The Cedars team published in the journal Cell Reports and Health Canal picked up the hospital’s press release. The UCSD team published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and Science Daily picked up the university’s press release. CIRM funds a number of projects working on new therapies for brain cancer.

Stem cell stories that caught our eye: correcting cystic fibrosis gene, improving IVF outcome, growing bone and Dolly

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Cystic Fibrosis gene corrected in stem cells. A team at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston corrected the defective gene that causes cystic fibrosis in stem cells made from the skin of cystic fibrosis patients. In the long term the advance could make it possible to grow new lungs for patients with genes that match their own—with one life-saving exception—and therefore avoid immune rejection. But, the short-term outcome will be a model for the disease that provides tools for evaluating potential new drug therapies.

“We’ve created stem cells corrected for the cystic fibrosis mutation that potentially could be utilized therapeutically for patients,” said Brian Davis the study’s senior author in a university press release. “While much work remains, it is possible that these cells could one day be used as a form of cell therapy.”

The researchers made the genetic correction in the stem cells using the molecular scissors known as zing finger nucleases. Essentially they cut out the bad gene and pasted in the correct version.

Stem cell researchers boost IVF. Given all the ethical issues raised in the early years of embryonic stem cell research it is nice to be able to report on work in the field that can boost the chances of creating a new life through in vitro fertilization (IVF). Building on earlier work at Stanford a CIRM-funded team there has developed a way to detect chromosome abnormalities in the embryo within 30 hours of fertilization.

Chromosomal abnormalities account for a high percent of the 60 to 70 percent of implanted embryos that end up in miscarriage. But traditional methods can’t detect those chromosomal errors until day five or six and clinicians have found that embryos implant best three to four days post fertilization. This new technique should allow doctors to implant only the embryos most likely to survive.

“A failed IVF attempt takes an emotional toll on a woman who is anticipating a pregnancy as well as a financial toll on families, with a single IVF treatment costing thousands and thousands of dollars per cycle. Our findings also bring hope to couples who are struggling to start a family and wish to avoid the selection and transfer of embryos with unknown or poor potential for implantation,” explained Shawn Chavez who led the team and has since moved to Oregon Health Sciences University.

The study, which used recent advanced technology in non-invasive imaging, was described in a press release from Oregon.

Fun TED-Ed video shows how to grow bone. Medical Daily published a story this week about a team that had released a TED-Ed video earlier this month on how to grow a replacement bone on the lab. The embedded video provides a great primer on how we normally grow and repair bone in our bodies and how that knowledge can inform efforts to grow bone in the lab.

In particular, the story walks through a scenario of a patient with a bone defect too large for our normal repair mechanisms to patch up. It describes how scientist can take stem cells from fat, use 3D printers to mold a scaffold the exact shape of the defect, and culture the stem cells on the scaffold in the lab to create the needed bone.

The video and story reflect the work of New York-based company EpiBone and its tissue engineer CEO Nina Tandon.

Happy birthday Dolly (the sheep). July 5 marked the 19th anniversary of the first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep in Scotland. For fans of the history of science, MotherBoard gives a good brief history of the resulting kerfuffle and a reminder that Dolly was not very healthy and the procedure was not and is not ready to produce cloned human.

Dolly's taxidermied remains are in a museum in Scotland. She died after only six years, about half the normal life expectancy.

Dolly’s taxidermied remains are in a museum in Scotland. She died after only six years, about half the normal life expectancy.

Parkinson’s blog explains the science behind turning skin cells into a model for the disease

When my colleagues and I write about new advances in stem cell science we often rely on what I refer to as the Sydney Harris method of explaining the science. One of the cartoonist’s most reproduced drawings shows a researcher writing a series of steps on a chalk board with one in the middle being “then a miracle happens.”

Alex was diagnosed with Parkinson's at age 36. His skin cells became a model for the disease.

Alex was diagnosed with Parkinson’s at age 36. His skin cells became a model for the disease.

Our goal usually centers on helping our readers understand an advance and how it moves the field forward, not describing how the scientist actually knows what he or she is reporting. For anyone who wants to get inside the science, particularly about reprogramming skin cells to be stem cells, which we write about often, I suggest a visit to “Alex’s Skin Cell Blog.” A patient with young-onset Parkinson’s disease, it chronicles turning Alex’s skin cells into a model for the disease.

The research takes place at the Parkinson’s Institute in Sunnyvale and the blog features a conversation between Alex and researchers there. Most of the columns feature a CIRM-funded graduate student Lauren Pijanowski, and more recently, Birgitt Schuele.

They explain in pretty understandable pros and illustrations how scientists know things like: were they successful in getting the skin cells to become stem cells; how they make sure the reprogramming process does not damage the cells; and how they keep Alex’s cells alive in a tissue bank. In the most recent, Birgitt explains the use of fluorescent markers to identify cells that have become true stem cells.

This resource could be extremely valuable to teachers, but can also be fun for the simply science curious. For a wealth of more basics on stem cells for teachers, students or the science curious, also check out our high school curriculum.

Not all reprogrammed stem cells are the same—an eye-catching example

Scientists can take any adult tissue whether skin, blood or nerve and use genetic factors to reprogram them into embryonic-like stem cells. But the Nobel Prize-winning technique does not produce stem cells with equal ability to mature into various tissues needed to repair damage from disease or injury.

A team at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital recently showed that stem cells made from a type of nerve in the eye produced retinal cells more efficiently than stem cells made from skin. The finding fits well with a few years of evidence that reprogrammed stem cells, called iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells), retain some memory of what they were before they were reprogrammed into stem cells.

Retinal cells grown from stem cells.

Retinal cells grown from stem cells.

The research, published in Cell Stem Cell, took the extra step to identify one factor that allowed the eye nerve cells to remember their origin. Adult cells develop changes in the structure around the genes called epigenetic markers. Those markers help regulate whether the genes are turned on or off. The St. Jude’s team found one specific epigenetic switch that contributed to the nerve-derived stem cells’ memory.

They used a new technique they developed called STEM-RET that let them quantify how good various stem cells are at creating retinal cells. Then they looked for epigenetic fingerprints to use as markers for isolating those cells. Michael Dyer, who led the team, explained the value of finding and sorting stem cells with particular traits in a press release picked up by ScienceNewsline:

 

“Such fingerprints would tell researchers which stem cell lines would most likely be effective in making retinal cells, bone marrow cells or other types of mature cells for therapeutic purposes.”

The team also used a 3-D culture technique that seemed more efficient than standard cell cultures. Considering that many current processes for making a desired cell type for transplant are not sufficiently efficient for broad therapeutic use, these types of practical advances could be exactly what the field needs to reach mainstream clinical care.

CIRM funds several projects looking to treat blindness caused by retinal disease.

Stem cell stories that caught our eye: Immune therapy for HIV, nerves grown on diamonds and how stem cells talk

Here are some stem cell stories that caught our eye this past week. Some are groundbreaking science, others are of personal interest to us, and still others are just fun.

Trendy CAR T therapy tried on HIV.  The hottest trend in cancer therapy today is using CAR-T cells to attack and rid the body of cancer. Technically called chimeric antigen receptors the technology basically provides our own immune system with directions to cancer cells and keys to get inside them and destroy them. A CIRM-funded team at the University of California, Los Angeles, has now tried that same scheme with HIV.

Jerome Zack (left) and Scott Kitchen, found that the technique decreased HIV levels in mice by 80 to 95 percent.

Jerome Zack (left) and Scott Kitchen, found that the technique decreased HIV levels in mice by 80 to 95 percent.

The researchers worked with mice bred to have a human immune system so that HIV affects them similarly to humans. They harvested their blood-forming stem cells and inserted a CAR that recognized HIV. After giving the stem cells back to the mice they produced T cells capable of seeking out and destroying about 90 percent of the virus. The technique has a ways to go, but the study’s lead author noted their ultimate goal in a University press release picked up by HealthCanal:

“We hope this approach could one day allow HIV-positive individuals to reduce or even stop their current HIV drug regimen and clear the virus from the body altogether,” said Scott Kitchen. “We also think this approach could possibly be extended to other diseases.”

Nerves grown on diamonds. Diamonds are so chemically non-reactive our bodies would not recognize them as foreign. But they can also be made to conduct electricity, which could make nerves grown on their surface able to be turned on and off with electrical impulses. When developing cell therapy for several neurologic diseases the ability to control the activity of replacement cells could be critical to success—making new research by a team in Britain and Ireland intriguing, if very preliminary.

They doped diamonds with boron to make them able to conduct electricity and then used them as a surface for growing nerve stem cells that could later be turned into nerves. They then succeeded in growing nerves long term on the diamonds.

“We still have a lot more fundamental studies of the neuron/diamond interface to perform,” said Paul May of the University of Bristol. “[But] the long term possibilities for this work are exciting.  Long-lifetime diamond bio-implants may offer treatments for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, stroke or even epilepsy.”

Materials Today wrote a piece explaining the work.

Some stem cells talk over “land lines.” Most cellular communication works through chemical signals that get dispatched by one cell and received by others. It turns out that some types of stem cells communicate by sending out tiny nanotubes, sort of a cellular land line.

A team at the University of Michigan and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center found the new form of communication working with fruit flies. Yukiko Yamashita, a senior author of the paper from Michigan explained why it is so important to get a better understanding of cell-to-cell communication in a university press release picked up by ScienceNewsline:

“There are trillions of cells in the human body, but nowhere near that number of signaling pathways. There’s a lot we don’t know about how the right cells get just the right messages to the right recipients at the right time.”

In a classic example of the beauty of young minds in science, prior images of these stem cells had shown the nanotubes, but they had been overlooked until a graduate student asked what they were.

Phase 3 melanoma trial explained. When a new therapy gets into its third and final phase of testing it is make or break for the company developing the therapy and for patients who hope it will become broadly available. CIRM recently provided funding to our first phase three clinical trial, one aimed at metastatic melanoma being conducted by Caladrius Biosciences.

The CEO of the company, David Mazzo, gave an interview with The New Economy this week that does a nice job of explaining the goal of the therapy and how it is different from other therapies currently used or being developed. The therapy’s main difference is its ability to target the cancer-inducing cells thought to responsible for the spread of the disease.